Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)

1. General

  • Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. Science in Emergent Countries. Sydney: ANZAAS, 1970; Search vol. 1 no. 5; special issue on 42nd Congress of ANZAAS, Port Moresby, 1970.
  • Morton, J. R., ed. The Role of Science and Technology in the Development of Papua New Guinea: the Policy Dimensions. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.

2. Biological Sciences

  • Archbold, Richard and A. L. Rand. New Guinea Expedition: Fly River Area, 1936-1937. New York: McBride, 1940; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Australian Unesco Committee for Man and the Biosphere. Report: Symposium on Ecological Effects of Increasing Human Activities on Tropical and Subtropical Forest Ecosystems, University of Papua New Guinea, 1975. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1976.
  • Gressitt, J. Linsey, ed. Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea. The Hague: Junk, 1982.
  • Lamb, Kenneth Percival and J. Linsey Gressitt, ed. Ecology and Conservation in Papua New Guinea; a Symposium held at the Wau Ecology Institute . . . 1975. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1976.
  • Paijmans, Kees, ed. New Guinea Vegetation. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with the Australian National University Press; Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1976.

3. Earth Sciences

  • Bleeker, Pieter. Soils of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with Australian National University Press, 1983.
  • Blong, Russell J. The Time of Darkness: Local Legends and Volcanic Reality in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Johnson, Robert Wallace and N. A. Threlfall. Volcano Town: the 1937-1943 Eruptions at Rabaul. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Knight, C. L., ed. Economic Geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1975-76.
  • Löffler, Ernst. Geomorphology of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization with Australian National University Press, 1977.
  • McAlpine, John Roger, et al. Climate of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with Australian National University Press, 1983.
  • Taylor, G. A. M. The 1951 Eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua. Canberra: Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, 1958.

4. Human Geography

  • Brookfield, Harold C., ed. The Pacific in Transition: Geographical Perspectives on Adaptation and Change. London: Edward Arnold; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. with D. Hart. Melanesia: a Geographical Interpretation of an Island World. London: Methuen, 1971.
  • Clarke, William C. Place and People: an Ecology of a New Guinean Community. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.
  • Howlett, Diana Rosemary. Papua New Guinea: Geography and Change. Melbourne: Nelson, rev. ed. 1973.
  • Ward, R. Gerard and David A. M. Lea, ed. An Atlas of Papua and New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Geography, University of Papua and New Guinea, 1970.

5. Medicine and Public Health

  • Burton-Bradley, Sir Burton G. Stone Age Crisis: A Psychiatric Appraisal. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Press, 1973.
  • . A History of Medicine in Papua New Guinea: Vignettes of an Earlier Period. Kingsgrove, New South Wales: Australasian Medical Publishing, 1990.
  • Burton-Bradley, Sir Burton G. and Otto Billig. The Painted Message. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1978.
  • Denoon, Donald and Roy MacLeod, ed. Health and Healing in Tropical Australia and Papua New Guinea. Townsville, Queensland: James Cook University, 1991.
  • Denoon, Donald with Kathleen Dugan and Leslie Marshall. Public Health in Papua New Guinea: Medical Possibility and Social Constraint, 1884-1984. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Ewers, William H. and W. T. Jeffrey. Parasites of Man in Niugini. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • Farquhar, Judith and D. Carleton Gajdusek. Kuru: Early Letters and Field-notes from the Collection of D. Carleton Gajdusek. New York: Raven Press, 1981.
  • Frankel, Stephen and Gilbert Lewis. A Continuing Trial of Treatment: Medical Pluralism in Papua New Guinea. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer, 1989.
  • Gillett, Joy E. The Health of Women in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1990.
  • Godard, Michael. “Bedlam in Paradise: a Critical History of Psychiatry in Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Pacific History, v.27, no. 1, June 1992, pp. 55-72.
  • Hornabrook, Richard W., ed. Essays on Kuru. Faringdon: E. W. Classey for Institute of Human Biology, 1976.
  • Jeffries, Dougal J. From Kaukau to Coke: a Study of Rural and Urban Food Habits in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University for UNESCO, 1979.
  • Kettle, Ellen S. That They Might Live. Sydney:P. F. Leonard, 1979.
  • Malcolm, L. A. Growth and Development in New Guinea: A Study of the Bundi People of the Madang District. Madang: Institute of Human Biology, 1970.
  • Papua New Guinea National Health Plan, 1986-1990. Port Moresby: Department of Health, 1986.
  • Reilly, Quentin. The Decentralisation of Health Services in Papua New Guinea: the Problem, the Method and the Results. Port Moresby: Department of Health, 1985.
  • Sinnett, Peter F. The People of Murapin. Faringdon: E. W. Classey for Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1975.
  • Smith, D. E. and Michael J. Alpers, ed. Cigarette Smoking in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute o Medical Research, 1984.
  • . Village Water Supplies in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1985.

6. Natural History: Animals and Plants

  • Beehler, Bruce McP. et al. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • Coates, Brian J. Birds in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Robert Brown, 1977.
  • . The Birds of Papua New Guinea, including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville. Alderley, Queensland: Dove Publications, 1985-1990.
  • Cooper, William T. and Joseph M. Forshaw. The Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. Sydney: Collins, 1977.
  • D’Abrera, Bernard. Butterflies of the Australian Region. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1977.
  • Gilliard, E. Thomas. Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969.
  • Goode, John. Freshwater Tortoises of Australia and New Guinea (in the Family Chelidae) Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1967.
  • Gressitt, J. Linsey and Richard W. Hornabrook. Handbook of Common New Guinea Beetles. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1977.
  • Hinton, Alan. Guide to Shells of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Robert Brown, 1979.
  • Lindgren, Eric. Wildlife in New Guinea. Sydney: Golden Press; London: Muller, 1975.
  • Majnep, lan Saem and Ralph Bulmer, illustrations by Christopher Healey. Birds of my Kalam Country. Auckland: Auckland University Press; London: London University Press, 1977.
  • Menzies, James I. Handbook of Common New Guinea Frogs. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1976.
  • . H. Handbook of New Guinea Rodents. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1979.
  • Millar, Andrée et al.; photographs by Roy and Margaret Mackay. Orchids of Papua New Guinea: an Introduction. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Munro, Ian Stafford Ross. The Fishes of New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, 1967.
  • Rand, Austin L. and E. Thomas Gilliard. Handbook of New Guinea Birds. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967.
  • Rutgers, A., illustrations John Gould. Birds of New Guinea. London: Methuen, 1970.
  • Whitaker, Rom and Zai Whitaker. Reptiles of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, 1982.

Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)

1. Anthropology, Social and Cultural

  • Abbi, Behari L. Traditional Groupings and Modern Associations: a Study of Changing Local Groups in Papua & New Guinea. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.
  • Allen, Michael R. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1967.
  • Armstrong, Wallace Edwin. Rossel Island: an Ethnological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.
  • Aufenanger, Heinrich. The Great Inheritance, Northeast New Guinea; a Collection of Anthropological Data. St. Augustin: Anthropos Institute, 1972.
  • The Passing Scene in North-east New Guinea. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1972.
  • Barth, Fredrik. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of New Guinea. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Bateson, Gregory. Naven: a Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe from Three Points of View. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2nd ed. 1958.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. Changing Melanesia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1964; reprinted, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray. Excess and Restraint: Social Control among a New Guinea Mountain People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Blackwood, Beatrice. Both Sides of Buka Passage: an Ethnographic Study of Social, Sexual, and Economic Questions in the North-western Solomon Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • from published articles and unpublished field-notes by Christopher Robert Hallpike. The Kukukuku of the Upper Watut. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum, 1978.
  • Böhm, Karl. The Life of Some Island People of New Guinea: a Missionary’s Observations of the Volcanic Islands of Manam, Boesa, Biem, and Ubrub. Berlin: D. Reimer, 1983.
  • Brandewie, Ernest. Contrast and Context in New Guinea Culture: the Case of the Mbowamb of the Central Highlands. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1981.
  • Brennan, Paul W., ed.. Exploring Enga Culture: Studies in Missionary Anthropology; Second Anthropological Conference of the New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970. [Papua New Guinea]: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. and Paula Brown. Struggle for Land: Agriculture and Group Territories among the Chimbu of the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1963.
  • Brown, Paula. The Chimbu: a Study of Change in the New Guinea Highlands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1972; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
  • Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  • Brown, Paula and Georgeda Buchbinder, ed. Man and Woman in the New Guinea Highlands. Washington, D. C.: American Anthropological Association, 1976.
  • Brunton, Ronald. The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Tangu Traditions: a Study of the Way of Life, Mythology and Developing Experience of a New Guinea People. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
  • Carrier, James G., ed. History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Carrier, James and Achshah H. Carrier. Structure and Process in a Melanesian Society: Ponam’s Progress in the Twentieth Century. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • Chowning, Ann. An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. 2nd ed., Menlo Park, California: Cummings Publishing Company, 1977.
  • Clark, Jeffrey. ”Pearlshell Symbolism in Highlands Papua New Guinea, Particular Reference to the Wiru People of Southern Highlands Province.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1991, pp. 309-339.
  • Clay, Brenda Johnson. Mandak Realities: Person and Power in Central New Ireland. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  • Pinkindu: Maternal Nurture, Paternal Substance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891.
  • Conton, Leslie. Women’s Roles in a Man’s World: Appearance and Reality in a New Guinea Lowland Village. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1977.
  • Cook, Edwin A. and Denise O’Brien. Blood and Semen: Kinship Systems of Highland New Guinea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980.
  • Cranstone, B. A. L. Melanesia: a Short Ethnography. London: British Museum, 1961.
  • Du Toit, Brian M. Akuna: a New Guinea Village Community. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1975.
  • Elkin, Adolphus Peter. Social Anthropology in Melanesia: a Review of Research. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard, ed. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • In the Midst of Life: Affect and Ideation in the World of the Tolai. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Matupit: Land, Politics, and Change among the Tolai of New Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1969.
  • Ernst, Thomas M. “Onabasulu Male Homosexuality: Cosmology, Affect and Prescribed Male Homosexual Activity among the Onabasulu of the Great Papuan Plateau.” Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 1-11.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl and Deborah Gewertz. Cultural Alternatives and a Feminist Anthropology: an Analysis of Culturally Constructed Gender Interests in Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Feil, Daryl Keith. Ways of Exchange: the Enga Tee of Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1984.
  • The Evolution of Highland Papua New Guinea Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Fitz-Patrick, David G. and John Kimbuna. Bundi: the Culture of a Papua New Guinea People. Nerang, Queensland: Ryebuck Publications, 1983.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Sorcerers of Dobu: the Social Anthropology of the Dobu Islanders of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge, 1932; rev. ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
  • Foster, Robert. “Commoditization and the Emergence of ‘Kastam’ as a Cultural Category: a New Ireland Case in Comparative Perspective.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1992, pp. 284-294.
  • Gelber, Marilyn G. Gender and Society in the New Guinea Highlands: an Anthropological Perspective on Antagonism towards Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986.
  • Gell, Alfred. The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda Society, Language and Ritual. London: Athlone Press, 1975.
  • Gewertz, Deborah B. Sepik River Societies: a Historical Ethnography of the Chambri and their Neighbors. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Gewertz, Deborah and Edward Schieffelin, ed. History and Ethnohistory in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Glasse, Robert M. Huli of Papua: a Cognatic Descent System. Paris: Mouton, 1968.
  • Glasse, Robert M. and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Pigs, Pearlshells and Women; Marriage in the New Guinea Highlands. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  • Godelier, Maurice, trans. Rupert Swyer. The Making of Great Men: Male Domination and Power among the New Guinea Baruya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Godelier, Maurice and Marilyn Strathern. Big Men and Great Men: Personifications of Power in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown. London: Methuen, 1901.
  • Hallpike, Christopher Robert. Bloodshed and Vengeance in the Papuan Mountains: the Generation of Conflict in Tauade Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Harrison, Simon. Stealing People’s Names: History and Politics in a Sepik River Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Hau’ofa, Epeli. Mekeo: Inequality and Ambivalence in a Village Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1981.
  • Healey, Christopher James. Maring Hunters and Traders: Production and Exchange in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Pioneers of the Mountain Forest: Settlement and Land Redistribution among the Kundagai Maring of the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
  • Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
  • The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987.
  • Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Hiatt, Lester Richard and Chandra Jayawardena, eds. Anthropology in Oceania: Essays Presented to lan Hogbin. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. Kinship and Marriage in a New Guinea Village. London: Athlone Press, 1963.
  • The Leaders and the Led: Social Control in Wogeo, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1978.
  • Social Change: Josiah Mason Lectures Delivered at the University of Birmingham. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1958, reprinted 1970.
  • Transformation Scene: the Changing Culture of a New Guinea Village. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian and Peter Lawrence. Studies in New Guinea Land Tenure. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1967.
  • Hutchins, Edwin Lee. Culture and Interference: a Trobriand Case Study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • Jarvie, Ian C. The Revolution in Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964; corrected reprint 1967.
  • Jenness, Diamond and A. Ballantyne. The Northern D’Entrecasteux. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1920.
  • Jolly, Margaret and Martha Mcintyre, ed. Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Josephides, Lisette. The Production of Inequality: Gender and Exchange among the Kewa. London: Tavistock, 1985.
  • Kahn, Miriam. Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the Expression of Gender in a Melanesian Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Kasprus, Aloys. The Tribes of the Middle Ramu and the Upper Keram Rivers (North-east New Guinea) St Augustin: Anthropos-Institut, 1973.
  • Kelly, Raymond Case. Etoro Social Structure: a Study in Structural Contradiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
  • Knauft, Bruce M. Good Company and Violence: Sorcery and Social Action in a Lowland New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • South Coast New Guinea Cultures: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Koch, Klaus Friedrich. War and Peace in Jalémó: the Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea: a Nature-born Instance of Rousseau’s Ideal Community. London: Macmillan, 1927; New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.
  • Langness, Lewis L. and Weschler, John C., ed. Melanesia; Readings on a Culture Area. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1971.
  • Lawrence, Peter. The Garia: an Ethnography of a Traditional Cosmic System in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
  • Land Tenure among the Garia: the Traditional System of a New Guinea People. Canberra: Australian National University, 1955.
  • Leach, Jerry W. and Edmund Leach, ed. The Kula: New Perspectives on Massim Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Lederman, Rena. What Gifts Engender: Social Relations and Politics in Mendi, Highland Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: an Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Knowledge of Illness in a Sepik Society: a Study of the Gnau, New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1975.
  • Lidz, Theodore et al. Oedipus in the Stone Age: a Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press, 1989.
  • Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy. The Mundugumor: from the Field Notes of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
  • MacKenzie, Maureen Anne. Androgynous Objects: String Bags and Gender in Central New Guinea. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • McSwain, Romola. The Past and Future People: Tradition and Change on a New Guinea Island. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men for Old: a Study of Cultural Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1961.
  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922.
  • Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1926.
  • Norbert Guterman. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967.
  • ed. by Michael W. Young. The Ethnography of Malinowski: the Trobriand Islands 1915-18. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
  • Magic, Science and Religion, and Other Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • Sex and Repression in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927; New York: Humanities Press, 1951.
  • Sex, Culture and Myth. London: Hart-Davis, 1963.
  • The Sexual Life of Savages in North-western Melanesia: an Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London: Routledge, 1929; 3rd ed., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1932.
  • Mawe, Theodore. Mendi Culture and Tradition: a Recent Survey. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1985.
  • Mead, Margaret. Growing up in New Guinea: a Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow, 1930; London: Routledge, 1931; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1942, 1965, 1981.
  • The Mountain Arapesh. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1938-45; reprinted Garden City, New York: Natural History Press, 1968-71.
  • New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation, Manus, 1928-53. New York: William Morrow,; London, Gollancz: 1956; 2nd ed., New York: William Morrow, 1966.
  • Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1935.
  • Meggitt, Mervyn John. Blood is their Argument: Warfare among the Mae Enga Tribesmen of the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1977.
  • The Lineage System of the Mae-Enga of New Guinea. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.
  • Studies in Enga History. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1974.
  • Mimica, Jadran. “The Incest Passions: an Outline of the Logic of Iqwaye Social Organization.” Part 1: Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 34-58; Part 2: Oceania, v.62, no. 2, Dec 1991, pp. 81-113.
  • Mitchell, William E., ed. Clowning as Critical Practice: Performance Humor in the South Pacific. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
  • Morren, George E. B. The Miyanmin: Human Ecology of a Papua New Guinea Society. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Mosko, Mark S. Quadripartite Structures: Categories, Relations and Homologies in Bush Mekeo Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Munn, Nancy D. The Fame of Gawa: a Symbolic Study of Value Transformation in a Massim (Papua New Guinea) Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976; Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1992.
  • Neumann, Klaus. “Tradition and Identity in Papua New Guinea: Some Observations regarding Tami and Tolai.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 295-316.
  • Newman, Philip Lee. Knowing the Gururumba. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.
  • Oliver, Douglas. A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1955.
  • Studies in the Anthropology of Bougainville, Solomon Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 1949.
  • Otto, Tom. “The Ways of ‘Kastam’: Tradition as Category and Practice in a Manus Village.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 264-283.
  • Pataki-Schweizer, K. J. A New Guinea Landscape: Community, Space and Time in the Eastern Highlands. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.
  • Powdermaker, Louise [Hortense]. Life in Lesu: the Study of a Melanesian Society in New Ireland. London: Williams and Norgate, 1933; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968; new ed. 1984.
  • Read, Kenneth E. The High Valley. New York: Scribner, 1965; London: Allen and Unwin, 1966.
  • Return to the High Valley: Coming Full Circle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Reay, Marie. The Kuma: Freedom and Conformity in the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1959.
  • Robbins, Sterling. Auyuna: Those Who Held onto Home. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Warfare, Marriage and the Distribution of Goods in Auyana. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Mead’s Other Manus: Phenomenology of the Encounter. South Hadley, Massachusetts: Bergin and Garvey, 1985.
  • Rubel, Paula G. and Abraham Rosman. Your Own Pigs You May Not Eat: a Comparative Study of New Guinea Societies. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1977.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. and Robert Crittenden, ed. Like People You See in a Dream: First Contact in Six Papuan Societies. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1991.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. “Kastom, ‘custom’, and culture: conspicuous culture and culture constructs.” Anthropological Forum, v.6, no.4, 1993, pp. 515-540.
  • Schwimmer, Erik. Exchange in the Social Structure of the Orokaiva: Traditional and Emergent Ideologies in the Northern District of Papua. London: Hurst; Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Seligman, Charles Gabriel. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910.
  • Shaw, R. Daniel. Kinship Studies in Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • Sorenson, E. Richard. The Edge of the Forest: Childhood and Change in a New Guinea Protoagricultural Society. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.
  • Spiro, Melford E. Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Stephen, Michele, ed. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press with Research Centre for South-west Pacific Studies, Latrobe University, 1987.
  • Strathern, Andrew A. Landmarks: Reflections on Anthropology. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.
  • A Line of Power. London: Tavistock, 1984.
  • One Father, One Blood: Descent and Group Structure among the Melpa People. Canberra: Australian National University Press; London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.
  • The Rope of Moka: Big-men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • Inequality in New Guinea Highlands Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Strathern, Marilyn. The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
  • . Partial Connections. Savage, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.
  • Women in Between: Female Roles in a Male World: Mount Hagen, New Guinea. London: Seminar Press, 1972.
  • , ed. Dealing with Inequality: Analysing Gender Relations in Melanesia and Beyond; Essays by Members of the 1983/ 1984 Anthropological Research Group at the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Swadling, Pamela, ed. People of the West Sepik Coast. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1979.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The llahita Arapesh: Dimensions of Unity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • Uberoi, J. P. Singh. Politics of the Kula-ring: an Analysis of the Findings of Bronislaw Malinowski. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1962.
  • Valentine, Charles A. Masks and Men in a Melanesian Society: the Valuku or Tubuan of the Lakalai of New Britain. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1961.
  • Vicedom, Georg F. and Herbert Tischner, trans. by Helen M. Groger-Wurm. The Mbowamb: the Culture of the Mount Hagen Tribes in East Central New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1983.
  • Waddell, E. The Mound Builders: Agricultural Practices, Environment, and Society in the Central Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Wagner, Roy. Asiwinarong: Ethos, Image, and Social Power among the Usen Barok of New Ireland. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • . The Curse of Souw: Principles of Daribi Clan Definition and Alliance in New Guinea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
  • Watson, James B. Tairora Culture: Contingency and Pragmatism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983.
  • , ed. New Guinea: the Central Highlands. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1964.
  • Weiner, Annette. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Quensland Press, 1977.
  • Weiner, James F. The Empty Place; Poetry, Space, and Being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. Mountain Papuans. Historical and Comparative Perspectives from New Guinea Fringe Highlands Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.
  • Westerman, Ted. The Mountain People: Social Institutions of the Laiapu Enga. Wapenamanda: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1968.
  • Whiteman, Darrell L. An Introduction to Melanesian Cultures: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • Whiting, John Wesley Mayhew. Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and Learning in a New Guinea Tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press for Institute of Human Relations, 1941; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Williams, Francis Edgar. Drama of Orokolo: Social and Ceremonial Life of the Elema. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
  • . Orokaiva Magic. London: Oxford University Press, 1928; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1969.
  • . Orokaiva Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1982.
  • . Papuans of the Trans-Fly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936; reprinted by arrangement with the Administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1969.
  • , ed. Erik Schwimmer. ”The Vailala Madness” and Other Essays. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.
  • Williamson, Robert Wood. The Mafulu: Mountain People of British New Guinea. London: Macmillan, 1912.
  • Young, Michael. Fighting with Food: Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • . Magicians of Manumanu: Living Myth in Kalauna. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

2. Anthropology, Economic

 

  • Bell, Francis Lancelot Sutherland. Primitive Melanesian Economy: an Analysis of the Economic System of the Tanga of New Ireland. Sydney: Australian National Research Council, 1953.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. In Search of Wealth: a Study of the Emergence of Commercial Operations in the Melanesian Society of Southeastern Papua. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1955.
  • Carrier, James G. and Achshah H. Carrier. Wage, Trade, and Exchange in Melanesia: a Manus Society in the Modern State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
  • Epstein, Trude Scarlett. Capitalism, Primitive and Modern: Some Aspects of Tolai Economic Growth. Canberra: Australian National University, 1968.
  • . Urban Food Marketing and Third World Rural Development: the Structure of Producer-Seller Markets. London: Croom Helm, 1982.
  • Gitlow, Abraham L. Economics of the Mount Hagen Tribes, New Guinea. New York: Augustin, 1947; reprinted Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.
  • Harding, Thomas G. Kunai Men: Horticultural Systems of a Papua New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • . Voyagers of the Vitiaz Strait: a Study of a New Guinea Trade System. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men of Papua: a Study in Culture Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.
  • Mitchell, Donald Dean. Land and Agriculture in Nagovisi, Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1976.
  • Newton, Janice. Orokaiva Production and Change. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Ohtsuka, Ryaturo. Oriomo Papuans: Ecology of Sago-eaters in Lowland Papua. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1983.
  • Salisbury, Richard F. From Stone to Steel: Economic Consequences of a Technological Change in New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1962.
  • . Vunamami: Economic Transformation in a Traditional Society. Berkeley: University of California Press; Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1970.
  • Sexton, Lorraine. Mothers of Money, Daughters of Coffee; the Wok Meri Movement. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.

3. Demography

  • Bakker, M. L. Fertility in Papua New Guinea: a Study of Levels, Patterns and Change Based on Census Data. Port Moresby: National Statistical Office, 1986.
  • . The Mortality Situation in Papua New Guinea: Levels, Differentials, Patterns and Trends. Port Moresby: National Statistical Office, 1986.
  • McMurray, Christine. Recent Demography of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Population of Papua New Guinea. New York: United Nations; Noumea: South Pacific Commission, 1982.
  • Skeldon, Robin, ed. The Demography of Papua New Guinea: Analyses from the 1971 Census. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.

4. Education

  • Apelis, Ephraim T. Factors Affecting Standards in Community Schools: a New Ireland Case Study. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Austin, Anthony Russell. Technical Training and Development in Papua 1894-1941. Canberra: Australian National University, 1977.
  • Baker, Leigh R. Development of University Libraries in Papua New Guinea. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1981.
  • Brammall, John and Ronald J. May, ed. Education in Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Eighth Waigani Seminar. . . 1974. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1975.
  • Bray, Mark. Educational Planning in a Decentralised System: the Papua New Guinea Experience. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press; Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1984.
  • Bray, Mark and Peter Smith, ed. Education and Social Stratification in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1985.
  • Carrier, James G. Education and Society in a Manus Village. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Commission for Higher Education. Higher Education Plan: a Strategy for Rationalisation, 1986-1990. Port Moresby: The Commission, 1986.
  • Currie, Sir George et al. Report of the Commission on Higher Education in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: The Commission, 1964.
  • Duggan, Stephen J. ” ‘I Want the Natives to Progress’: Education and Economic Development in the Sepik (Papua New Guinea), 1946/1960.” History of Education Review, v.21, no. 1, 1992, pp. 29-46.
  • Groves, William Charles. Native Education and Culture-contact in New Guinea …. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1936; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1977.
  • Growth of Education Since Independence, 1975-1985. Port Moresby: Department of Education, 1985.
  • Hecht, Susan. Muruk and the Cross: Missions and Schools in the Southern Highlands. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1981.
  • Howie-Willis, lan. A Thousand Graduates: Conflict in University Development in Papua New Guinea, 1961-1976. Canberra: Australian National University, 1980.
  • Meek, V. Lynn. The University of Papua New Guinea: a Case Study in the Sociology of Higher Education. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1982.
  • Smith, Peter. Education and Colonial Control in Papua New Guinea: a Documentary History. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1987.
  • Swatridge, Colin. Delivering the Goods. Education as Cargo in Papua New Guinea. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986.
  • Thomas, Edmund Barrington, ed. Papua New Guinea Education. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • Weeks, Sheldon G., ed. The Education of the Papua New Guinea Child. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1980.
  • . The Story of my Education: Autobiographies of Schooling in Papua. Port Moresby: Education Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1977.

5. Language and Linguistics

  • Capell, Arthur. The Linguistic Position of South-eastern Papua. Sydney: Medical Publishing Company, 1943.
  • . A Survey of New Guinea Languages. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1969.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesian Languages: a Linguistic Survey of the Groups of Dialects and Languages Spread Over the Islands of Melanesia, Comprising their Comparative Grammar, Numerals, Vocabularies, and Phonology, and the Grammars of Some Thirty-five Languages, Preceded by a General Introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895; reprinted Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1974.
  • Dutton, Tom. Police Motu: Iena Sivarai (Its Story) Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1985.
  • , ed. Studies in Languages of Central and South-East Papua. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975.
  • Dutton, Tom and C. L. Voorhoeve. Beginning Hiri Motu. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1974.
  • Dutton, Tom in collaboration with Dicks Thomas. A New Course in Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin) Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Dutton, Tom et al., ed. The Language Game: Papers in Memory of Donald C. Laycock. Canberra: Department of Linguistics. Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1992.
  • Foley, William A. The Papuan Languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Franklin, Karl J., ed. The Linguistic Situation in the Gulf District and Adjacent Areas, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1973.
  • . Syntax and Semantics in Papua New Guinea Languages. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1981.
  • Goldman, Laurence. Talk Never Dies: the Language of Huli Disputes. London: Tavistock, 1983.
  • Healey, Alan. Language Learner’s Field Guide. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1975.
  • Laycock, Donald C. Sepik Languages: Checklist and Preliminary Classification. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1973.
  • McElhanon, Kenneth A. A Linguistic Field Guide to the Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1984.
  • McKaughan, Howard, ed. The Languages of the Eastern Family of the East New Guinea Highland Stock. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973.
  • Mihalic, Francis. Introduction to New Guinea Pidgin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • . The Jacaranda Dictionary and Grammar of Melanesian Pidgin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • Mühlhauser, Peter. Growth and Structure of the Lexicon of New Guinea Pidgin. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1984.
  • Murphy, John J. The Book of Pidgin English (Neo-Melanesian) Brisbane: W. R. Smith and Paterson, rev. ed., 1973; rev. ed, Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Ray, Sidney H. A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Ross, Malcolm. Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Schuhmacher, W. Wilfried et al. Pacific Rim: Austronesian and Papuan Linguistic History. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1992.
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 8: Linguistics in Oceania. The Hague: Mouton, 1971.
  • Sociolinguistic Surveys of Sepik Languages. Ukarumpa, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1981.
  • Steinbauer, Friedrich. Concise dictionary of New Guinea Pidgin (Neo-Melanesian), with Translations in English and German. Madang, Kristen Pres, 1969.
  • Studies in Languages of the Ok Family. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe. Papuan Languages of Oceania. The Hague: Mouton, 1973; Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1982.
  • . The Linguistic Situation in the Highlands District of Papua and New Guinea. Canberra, Government Printer, 1966.
  • . New Guinea and the Neighboring Areas: a Sociolinguistic Laboratory. The Hague: Mouton, 1979.
  • , ed. New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975-77.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe and Peter Mühlhauser, ed. Handbook of Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin) Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe et al. Language Atlas of the Pacific Area: Part I, New Guinea Area, Oceania, Australia. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities with Japan Academy, 1981.
  • Z’graggen, John A. The Languages of the Madang District, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975.

6. Human Biology

 

  • Ekman, Paul. The Face of Man: Expressions of Universal Emotion in a New Guinea Village. New York: Garland STPM Press, 1980.
  • Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott. Patterns of Human Variation: the Ethnography, Genetics and Phenetics of Bougainville Islanders. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975.
  • Howells, William. The Pacific Islanders. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.
  • Littlewood, Robert A. Physical Anthropology of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Pietrusewsky, Michael. Prehistoric Human Skeletal Remains from Papua New Guinea and the Marquesas. Honolulu: Social Sciences and Linguistics Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1976.
  • Swindler, Daris R. A Racial Study of the West Nakanai. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1962.

7. Religion

 

  • Brennan, Paul W. Let Sleeping Snakes Lie: a Study of Central Enga Traditional Religious Beliefs and Ritual. Adelaide: Australian Association for the Study of Religions, 1977.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Manus Religion: an Ethnological Study of the Manus Natives of the Admiralty Islands. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1935.
  • Gibbs, Philip. Ipili Religion, Past and Present: an Account of the Traditional Religion of the People of the Porgera and Paiela Valleys of Papua New Guinea and How It has Changed with the Coming of the European and Christianity. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1975.
  • Habel, Norman C., ed. Flowers, Plumes and Piglets: Phenomena of Melanesian Religion. Bedford Park, South Australia: Australian Association for the Study of Religions, 1979.
  • Herdt, Gilbert and Michele Stephen, ed. The Religious Imagination in New Guinea. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1970.
  • Lawrence, Peter and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Gods, Ghosts and Men in Melanesia: Some Religions of Australian New Guinea and the New Hebrides. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • McGregor, Donald E., revised Oswald G. Fountain. The Fish and the Cross. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1982.
  • Mantovani, Ennio. An Introduction to Melanesian Religions: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • May, John D’Arcy, ed. Living Theology in Melanesia: a Reader. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1985.
  • Meigs, Anna S. Food, Sex and Pollution: a New Guinea Religion. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1984.
  • Parratt, John. Papuan Belief and Ritual. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.
  • Schwarz, Brian. An Introduction to Ministry in Melanesia. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1985.
  • Strathern, Andrew. “Circulating Cults in Highland New Guinea: Pointers for Research.” Australian Journal of Anthropology, v.2, no. l., 1991, pp. 98-107.
  • Trompf, Garry W. Melanesian Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. The Gospel Is Not Western: Black Theologies from the Southwest Pacific. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1987.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The Voice of the Tambaran: Truth and Illusion in Ilahita Arapesh Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
  • Wagner, Roy. Habu: the Innovation of Meaning in Daribi Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

8. Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements

  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Mambu: a Melanesian Millennium. London: Methuen, 1960.
  • New Heaven, New Earth. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969.
  • Carley, Keith et al. Prophets of Melanesia: Six Essays. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Christiansen, Palle Ove. The Melanesian Cargo Cult: Millenarism as a Factor in Cultural Change. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1969.
  • Clarke, Jeffrey. “Madness and Colonisation: the Embodiment of Power in Pangia.” Oceania, v.63, no. , Sept 1992, pp. 15-26, 88-93.
  • Cochrane, Glynne. Big Men and Cargo Cults. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
  • Flannery, Wendy, ed. Religious Movements in Melanesia Today. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1983-84.
  • Gesch, Patrick F. Initiative and Initiation: a Cargo-type Movement in the Sepik against its Background in Traditional Village Religion. St Augustin: Anthropos-lnstitut, 1985.
  • Hermann, Elfriede. “The Yali Movement in Retrospect: Rewriting History, Redefining ‘Cargo Cults’.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 517-71, 88-93.
  • Kempf, Wolfgang. ” ‘The Second Coming of the Lord’: Early Christianization, Episodic Time, and the Cultural Construction of Continuity in Sibog.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 72, 86, 88-93.
  • Lattas, Andrew. “Skin, Personhood and Redemption: the Double Self in West New Britain Cargo Cults.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 27-54, 88-93.
  • Lawrence, Peter. Road belong Cargo: a Study of the Cargo Movement in the Southern Madang District, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1964.
  • Loeliger, Carl and Garry Trompf, ed. New Religious Movements in Melanesia. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • Rimoldi, Max and Eleanor Rimoldi. Hahalis and the Labour of Love: a Social Movement on Buka Island. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. The Paliau Movement in the Admiralty Islands, 1946-1954. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1962.
  • Steinbauer, Friedrich. Melanesian Cargo Cults: New Salvation Movements in the South Pacific. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1979.
  • Strelan, John G. Search for Salvation; Studies in the History and Theology of Cargo Cults. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House, 1977.
  • Trompf, Garry W., ed. Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements: Transoceanic Comparisons of New Religious Movements. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990.
  • Worsley, Peter. The Trumpet Shall Sound: a Study of ”Cargo” in Melanesia. London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1957; 2nd ed. 1968.

9. Sociology

 

  • Belshaw, Cyril S. The Great Village: the Economic and Social Welfare of Hanuabada, an Urban Community in Papua. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.
  • Biles, David. Crime in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1986.
  • Christie, Marion. Changing Consumer Behaviour in Papua New Guinea: its Social and Ecological Implications. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Clifford, William et al. Law and Order in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs and Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • De’ath, Colin. The Throwaway People: Social Impact of the Gogol Timber Project, Madang Province. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1980.
  • Developments in Law and Order 1985. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Developments in Law and Order 1991. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1991.
  • Dinnen, Sinclair. “Big Men, Small Men and Invisible Women: Urban Crime and Inequality in Papua New Guinea.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, v.26, no. 1, Mar 1993, pp. 19-34.
  • Garnaut, Ross et al. Employment, Incomes and Migration in Papua New Guinea Towns. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1977.
  • Gordon, Robert J. and Mervyn John Meggitt. Law and Order in the New Guinea Highlands: Encounters with Enga. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England for the University of Vermont, 1985.
  • Jackson, Richard with John Odongo and Patrick Batho, ed. Urbanisation and its Problems in Papua New Guinea: Papers Presented to the 1979 Waigani Seminar. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1980.
  • Levine, Hal Barry and Marle Wolfzahn Levine. Urbanization in Papua New Guinea: a Study of Ambivalent Townsmen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy, ed. Reproductive Decision Making and the Value of Children in Rural Papua New Guinea. Boroko: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1988.
  • Mamak, Alexander and Ahmed Ali. Race, Class and Rebellion in the South Pacific. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1979.
  • Mantovani, Ennio. Marriage in Melanesia: a Theological Perspective. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1987.
  • Marshall, Mac, ed. Through a Glass Darkly: Beer and Modernization in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • May, Ronald J., ed. Change and Movement: Readings on Internal Migration in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research in association with Australian National University Press, 1977.
  • Morauta, Louise, ed. Law and Order in a Changing Society: Papers Prepared for a Conference on Law and Order in Papua New Guinea . . . 1985. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1986.
  • O’Collins, Maev. Social Development in Papua New Guinea 1972-1990: Searching for Solutions in a Changing World. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1993.
  • , ed. Youth and Society: Perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1986.
  • Ombudsman Commission of Papua New Guinea. Report Upon an Investigation into the Treatment of Juvenile Offenders. Port Moresby: Ombudsman Commission, 1986.
  • Report, Committee to Review Policy and Adminstration on Crime, Law and Order. Port Moresby: Department of Provincial Affairs, 1983.
  • Sack, Peter G. Problem of Choice: Land in Papua New Guinea’s Future. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • Stretton, Alan. Urban Housing in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Toft, Susan, ed. Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • . Domestic Violence in Urban Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1986.
  • Toft, Susan and Susanne Bonnell, comp. Marriage and Domestic Violence in Rural Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • Townsend, Patricia K. [photographs, Kirk Franklin]. The Situation of Children in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1985.
  • Urban Housing in Papua New Guinea: I. N. A. Public Seminar. . . 1983. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1983.
  • Walker, John. Crime and Justice Statistics in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1985.

Cardinal Numbers in Tok Pisin

Numbers in Tok Pisin occur with and without –pela suffixed to them:

    1                       wan                                  wanpela
    2                      tu                                       tupela
    3                      tri                                      tripela
    4                      foa                                    fopela
    5                      faiv                                   faipela
    6                      sikis                                 sikispela
    7                      seven                               sevenpela
    8                      et                                       etpela
    9                      nain                                 nainpela
    10                    ten                                    tenpela

Those without –pela attached correspond to the names of the numbers in English and are used for mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and for counting money and telling the time, some of which will be presented in more detail later. Numbers beyond ten are not constructed as in English although one may occasionally hear the shorter ones with –pela attached to them, e.g.

    elevenpela                 eleven
    eitinpela                     eighteen
    twentipela                 twenty

Sometimes an older method of counting beyond ten is resorted to in modern contexts to make sure that there is no ambiguity or doubt about what is said. For example, on aircraft where the noise level is high the hostess might say The journey will take thirty-five minutes and will use tripela ten faiv minit for thirty-five . The numbers in this older method of counting are based on ten (except for the hundreds) and are regularly derived. Consider, for example:

    11                    wanpela ten wan
    12                   wanpela ten tu
    18                   wanpela ten et
    26                  tupela ten sikis
    54                  faipela ten foa
    80                  etpela ten
    100                wan handet

In the classroom nating, not or siro is used for nought or zero but outside it in everyday life the idea of nothing is expressed by i no gat wanpela (lit. there is not one). Approximations are given by samting olsem, e.g. Em i gat samting olsem fotisikis kina He’s got about K46 (lit. something like K46).

Personal Pronouns in Tok Pisin

The principal pronouns in Tok Pisin are:

Tok Pisin Refers to English
mi the speaker I, me
yu the person spoken to you
em the person or thing spoken about he, she, it
him, her, it
yumi the speaker and person(s) spoken to we (incl.), us (incl.)
mipela the speakers and person(s) with him and not including the person spoken to we (excl.), us (excl.)
yupela the persons spoken to you (pl)
ol the persons spoken about they, them

There are four important differences between these Tok Pisin pronouns and English ones:

1. There are no separate pronouns for he, she, it in Tok Pisin. These are all em. Thus Em i go long taun can mean either he went to town or she went to town;

2. In most carefully spoken varieties of Tok Pisin all the subject pronouns (except mi and yu) are followed by the special particle i which occurs between the pronoun and the verb, for example as in:

  • Mi wokabaut.
  • Yu wokabaut.
  • Em i wokabaut.
  • Yumi i wokabaut.
  • Mipela i wokabaut.
  • Yupela i wokabaut.
  • Ol i wokabaut.

In other varieties this particle is regularly omitted so that Em i wokabaut becomes Em wokabaut.

This particle is a most important part of the special structure of Tok Pisin and is usually referred to as the Predicative Particle or Predicate Marker. Its position relative to other items in sentences will be illustrated and discussed as they are introduced later. For teaching purposes it will be used after all pronouns except mi and yu in the first few units until learners get used to it. Then no further attention will be paid to it and it will be left out or used depending on context, speed of utterance and/or other factors operating at the time;

3. Most Tok Pisin speakers distinguish between yumi and mipela which are both represented as we in English. To distinguish the Tok Pisin forms in English yumi is said to be we (inclusive), that is we, including the person spoken to and mipela is said to be we (exclusive), that is we, excluding the person spoken to. Thus Mipela i go long taun means We (that is, my friends and I but not you) are going to town whereas Yumi go long taun means You and my friends and I are going to town;

4. Tok Pisin pronouns do not change form like English ones do when they occur as objects of verbs or prepositions (like long or bilong). Thus whereas in English one says He sees me and not He sees I, in Tok Pisin one says Em i lukim mi where mi is the same form as one uses in the beginning of sentences like Mi lukim em I see him.

Pronouns: dual and trial

In Tok Pisin it is customary to refer to the number of persons or things involved in any action, especially if there are only two or three. This is done by adding the numerals tupela and tripela to the pronouns mi, yu, em, yumi. Thus the set of pronouns given in the last table should now be expanded to include at least the following:

Tok Pisin Refers to English
mitupela the speaker and the person with him but not including the person spoken to we (two) (excl. )
yumitupela the speaker and the person spoken to we (two) (incl. )
yutupela the two persons spoken to you (two)
emtupela the two persons spoken about those (two)
mitripela the speaker and the two persons with him but not including the person spoken to we (three) (excl.)
yumitripela the speaker and the person with him and the person spoken to we (three) (incl.)
yutripela the three persons spoken to you (three)
emtripela the three persons spoken about those (three)

Reference to four, five , six, etc. can ‘be made in the same way by adding fopela, faipela, etc.

Provincial government of Papua New Guinea

The decentralisation policy

The provincial government system was initially introduced in the late 1970s after protracted discussions within government circles as to whether PNG, after gaining independence from Australia in 1975, should continue with a centralised political structure, or consider a much more complex decentralised version. The Constitutional Planning Committee (CPC), the group that comprised elected MPs and technocrats who were commissioned to oversee the drafting of PNG’s constitution, unanimously pushed for decentralisation as it was deemed a better ‘fit’ for PNG with the added novelty of being a design that was inclusive of ordinary people in contrast to a centralised system that projected exclusive control from an isolated central point. Accordingly, the decentralisation policy was introduced amidst widespread reservations. The reservations were by no means baseless. Given the truncated colonial history of the country, a modern state was superimposed on the diverse population from the 1950s, and strengthened after the first national elections in PNG in 1964. Eleven years later, independence was granted at a time when nation building and state building were profound dual challenges. Secession was expressed by Bougainville and the Papuan region as groups of people sought to protect their respective identities within the uncharted seas of political change. So when the decentralisation policy was first suggested, contrasting fears were expressed by sections of society. The policy could either work against nation building efforts – and worse still, perpetuate the disintegration of the country if groups of people were to relish this opportunity and push for a break away from PNG. Or, the decentralisation structure could accommodate the deeply diverse population by granting some degree of freedom to groups to run their own affairs while remaining under the umbrella of PNG. Either way, the challenge was always going to be colossal for a country that had just emerged from a stateless form.

On the other side of the spectrum, and away from political considerations, there were others who considered the decentralised structure unworkable. Local-level districts were slowly introduced from the 1950s and extended in the 1960s to represent the extent of the central colonial administration in peripheral areas. However, efforts were to encounter one particular challenge: the almost impenetrably rugged topography of the island of New Guinea that had challenged colonisers in the past. Furthermore, it was generally difficult to secure obedience from the local communities who were invariably recalcitrant and could not readily trust anybody from outside their immediate localities. Changing this mindset to suit a nationalised line of thinking was a hurdle in itself. It was for practical reasons therefore that the Australian colonial administration wanted to institute two levels of government: the national and local. The OLPGs brought in the second-ranked tier of government(provincial).

Public service and weak provincial leadership

For a country that in the 1970s had almost no educated elite to run the public service, the creation of provincial and local-level governments ensured that whatever manpower resources were available were spread very thinly. The situation was exacerbated by the last remnants of Australia’s colonial public servants leaving the country.

In hindsight, perhaps the biggest blunder was a decision taken by the national government soon after the adoption of the OLPGs to grant all provinces a government at the same time. Provinces that had a better pool of manpower and longer histories of contact with the colonial administration and the outside world were better prepared to handle their own affairs. But for many provinces, the provincial governments heralded new experiences in political leadership and administration. They were not equipped for such responsibilities and by the 1980s the weaknesses of the provincial governments began appearing. Capacity within weak provincial bureaucracies became obvious as poor administration became a reoccurring issue in the majority of provincial governments. Poor leadership was common as provincial leaders became embroiled in maladministrationand corruption.

The problems of provincial governments were compounded in the 1980s by a national government decision to reduce the powers of the Public Service Commission (PSC). While there were reasons for this decision, the end result was increased politicisation of the public service. This was felt principally at the national level – but with reverberating effects for provinces. By the 1990s, only a handful of provincial governments were working well while the rest struggled to make an impact.

Politicising service delivery

The decentralisation policy ensured the creation of layers of red tape as well as demarcated grounds for a political tussle between the national and provincial leaders as both sides laid claims to leadership roles in the same constituencies. To some degree this was a case of ‘dual legitimacy’ since both sets of leaders were elected by the same people and therefore saw the need to play to their wishes in a bid to maintain their support for the sake of their respective political careers.

While the OLPGs appeared clear on areas of responsibility and shared functions between the first and second levels of government, prevailing political interests charted their own course. When this included leadership at both the national and provincial levels, the end result was a four-way tussle that also involved the local level governments and the voting public. It became clear from the 1980s that there were tense relationships between the national and provincial governments. Provincial governments,for their part, were only too willing to criticise local level governments for performance-related issues. Local level leaders, for their part, were more than willing to return fire against provincial leaders, to the delight of national leaders. But in the final analogy, it was the people who held the ‘strings’ to all levels of leadership. When service delivery began declining it was easy and convenient to point to poor leadership as the primary cause. Less attention was paid to other factors, such as the manner in which the country was forced to rapidly accommodate foreign institutions and to work with them to yield acceptable results.

Meanwhile, opportunistic individuals were only too willing to place themselves at vantage positions to capitalise on the government and administrative systems. With a state system unable to command undivided support and loyalty from the people – and certainly not from most individuals situated within the state institutions– the state machinery at many points became resource outlets to serve more limited interests. Corruption, aided by weak institutions and poor enforcement of relevant laws, quickly worked its way into all levels of society.

MPs political interests and the OLPGLLGs

Undoubtedly there were issues that justified a review of the provincial government system. Bad governance,maladministration and poor service delivery were blights to the development aspirations and progress of the young country. What ultimately drove the reform agenda however was the national level MPs intention to completely eradicate political leadership at provincial level.

In March 1995, the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local level Governments was passed accompanied by pieces of enabling legislations. Its proponents argued that the new law better captured the precepts of decentralisation than its predecessor. Furthermore, it was supposed to improve the delivery of services, facilitate increased participation by people in government affairs, relocate public servants from urban centres to rural outstations and reduce opportunities for the mismanagement of funds. In hindsight, nothing could have been further from these objectives. For a plethora of reasons, service delivery has deteriorated over the past 18 years. While people’s participation has been enhanced through the elevated status of local level governments, this has become little more than a symbolic gesture given the direct involvement and influence of MPs in various governance aspects of the provinces. The much anticipated shift of public servants to peripheral areas from urban centres has not taken place. Poor infrastructure and the gradual disappearance of basic services in rural areas made it an unattractive proposition for public servants. Today,corruption is far more embedded than in the past.

While corruption and the poor performance of the public service generally negated the performance of the three-tier system of government, the most telling factor was the poor state of service delivery. Essential services to the people in PNG are directly linked to the strong reciprocal relationship between voters and MPs. Given the existence of weak political parties in the country where MP’s popularity is tied to the personality of the MP that heads them, voters habitually turn to MPs to deliver services to them. This responsibility traditionally, and by law, falls to the state through the public service. The weakness of the public service since the 1980s in turn has ensured that the elected leaders have gradually usurped the ‘delivery role’ – and today this is being overtly demonstrated in many ways.

Much of the inherent weaknesses of the law –including some idealistic provisions that were at odds with existing political realities – emerged partly as a result of poor implementation. What became evident with time was that the poor state of the law left it susceptible to political manoeuvring and influence. What we see today is an organic law that is struggling to make an impact as originally intended. At the same time, it has been captured and used to serve the public (especially for reasons relating service delivery), but twisted to serve individual political interests. The clearest example of this is how some MPs have been allocated K10 million annually to delivery services directly to their constituencies under what is called the District Support Improvement Program, but without proper accountability and auditing mechanisms in place.

Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Papua New Guinea

Corruption in Papua New Guinea is widespread and endemic, penetrating all levels of society. This situation is reflected in Papua New Guinea’s poor performance in most areas assessed by governance indicators. Official corruption and the misappropriation/theft of public funds are seen as the most significant governance issues of the country.

Papua New Guinea’s governance structure is rather comprehensive and the government has voiced its ambition to fight corruption. Anti-corruption efforts are nevertheless ineffective due to poor implementation of existing laws, considerable resource gaps and confusion over the overlapping responsibility of anticorruption and law enforcement agencies.

Overview of corruption in Papua New Guinea

Background

Papua New Guinea’s current governance situation and state of corruption are deeply rooted in the country’s recent history and geography as well as in its economic and political situation.

Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia in 1975, and is now part of the Commonwealth of Nations. The country’s head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a Governor General, currently Sir Michael Ogio. Papua New Guinea maintains strong ties to Australia, its primary economic and political partner. Australia is also Papua New Guinea’s main aid contributor. However, relationships with important Asian powers, as well as the USA, are also important for the country.

Politics in Papua New Guinea are characterised by high levels of corruption and instability. As of 2012, only one government completed the whole mandate for which it was elected. Political parties are very weak and fragmented. Elected officials rely on a very narrow base of support, and party discipline is non-existent. Historically, members of Parliament have easily changed political alliances after being elected or resigned from their party, significantly destabilizing government coalitions.

A “constitutional coup” in 2011 removed Michael Somare from office as Prime Minister while he was abroad, replacing him with Peter O’Neill. The Supreme Court later declared the nomination unconstitutional and stated that Somare should be reinstated. None of the administrations backed down and Papua New Guinea was left with two prime ministers and two administrations, until O’Neill joined forces with Somare and was elected in the general elections of the summer 2012.

Papua New Guinea is the most important economic power of the Pacific islands region, due to its significant natural resources. The country has important reserves of hydrocarbons, gold, copper, nickel and timber. Agriculture also accounts for a large portion of the economy and has grown in recent years due to the use of cash crops such as palm oil, coffee, copra and cocoa. The economy of Papua New Guinea operates with a very large informal economy. Despite its economic potential, Papua New Guinea remains a rather poor country. The wealth is not fairly redistributed, keeping large parts of the population in poverty. In 2011, the country ranked 153rd out of 183 on the Human Development Index and has one of the lowest literacy rates of the region (60%).

Main factors of corruption in Papua New Guinea

The reasons why corruption occurs are context-specific. They are embedded in a country’s history, political context, social norms, administrative traditions, geographic and economic situation. In Papua New Guinea, a few particularities can be singled out as significant drivers of corruption: the prevalence of traditional practices, impunity as well as the resource wealth.

History and traditional practices

A number of Papua New Guinea’s traditional cultural practices made their way into the country’s modern bureaucracy and political system, creating opportunities for corruption.

The National Research Institute points specifically to the concepts of the “big man mentality” (system where reputation is maintained by sizeable wealth distribution), gift-giving and the “wantok” system (described below). These practices, applied to a modern state structure can lead to bribery, undue influence and nepotism, and politicians accused of corruption often defend themselves using the “traditional” argument.

The distinction between traditional gift-giving and bribery is an issue regularly addressed by many courts in the Pacific region, especially in the context of elections. Public and political positions give access to significant amounts of wealth, from natural resources revenue and aid, which can be redistributed to a leader’s kin and constituency to maintain power and influence. Likewise, cronies benefit from being assigned to jobs and strategic positions. During the 2012 elections, a proliferation of “money politics” was observed; huge amounts of money and gifts were distributed, especially in campaign houses and men’s houses. Vote buying was reported in all electorates through gifts in form of money, food, pigs, boats trucks etc. 35% of the observers reported that bribery and intimidation happened to influence the choice of voters.

Lack of adequate training and ethical standards in the public sector

Before independence, the administration was staffed almost exclusively with Australian civil servants and, when Papua New Guinea gained independence in 1975, the latter had to be replaced by a local administration. This swift change did not allow for a transition period during which the new civil servants could receive adequate training. This situation hampered the well-functioning of the public administration. Corruption in the public sector rapidly became problematic and as corruption spread, fewer individuals were inclined to fight it.

Impunity and lack of adequate governance structures

The inefficiency of the law enforcement system, weaknesses of the judiciary and of the anti-corruption institutions (developed below) have created a situation of general impunity, facilitating the misappropriation of public funds by senior public officials. The feeling of impunity is illustrated by the fact that, until recently, corrupt officials did not feel the need to launder the proceeds of corruption abroad as prosecution risks were low.

Natural resources

Papua New Guinea is a resource-rich country whose economy heavily depends on its primary sector. The country has large reserves of natural resources but the revenues from their exploitation have not resulted in substantial social or human development.

Observers agree that Papua New Guinea’s mineral wealth has benefited the political elites more than the society as a whole. The absence of regulation of the country’s extractive industry has a significant impact on the environment as well, through, for example, the dumping of liquid mine waste in the rivers.

The forestry sector offers an interesting overview of the various corruption risks that exist in Papua New Guinea when it comes to resource management. Transparency PNG, in its Forest Governance Integrity Baseline Report, outlines a number of corruption-risk areas: the regulatory chain (undue influence and bribery of politicians), the licensing chain (bribery of the administration to fast track procedures, collusion between politics and business), the timber supply chain (undue influence on officials to obtain permits) and the revenue chain (bribery to avoid inspections, produce false declarations etc.). This example shows the kind of corruption risks that come with the exploitation of natural resources.

Extent of corruption

Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption Perception Index ranks Papua New Guinea 150th out of the 176 countries and territories assessed, with a score of 25 on a scale of 0 – 100, where 0 means that a country is perceived as highly corrupt and 100 means that a country is perceived as very clean. Papua New Guinea performs rather poorly in comparison to its neighbours, ranked 23rd out of 27 assessed countries in the Asia Pacific region.

Similarly, the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) place Papua New Guinea in the lowest quarter of the percentile ranks (11), on a scale of 0 to 100, in terms of control of corruption. Papua New Guinea’s score has been relatively stable and alarmingly low in the last decade, after a drop in percentile rank between 2002 (23) and 2005 (8). Papua New Guinea’s score on rule of law (24) also places the country in the lower quarter of the percentile ranks.

People in Papua New Guinea perceive corruption as a problem of their daily lives. Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer (2011) shows that 85% of the respondents find that the level of corruption has increased in the last three years. The experience of corruption is comparatively low, with 27% of the respondents reporting having paid a bribe in the last twelve months.

Forms of corruption

Petty and bureaucratic corruption

Papua New Guinea’s administration is burdensome and slow; experts qualify the country as a weak state that lacks the capacity of delivering the most basic services and policies. The state has not been able to contain the worsening security situation and health services are not adequately provided outside of the bigger cities. Starting a business in Papua New Guinea takes approximately 51 days, which is significantly more than the regional average of 36 days. Poorly functioning public administrations can encourage the use of bribery to speed up or “grease” administrative processes; 25% of the respondents to the Global Corruption Barometer admitted having paid a bribe in the last twelve months to receive a service they are entitled to.

The police appear as the institution most prone to ask for bribes (21%), followed by medical services (15%).

Grand corruption

Corruption is one of the most significant problems at the highest levels of government and bureaucracy. Misappropriation of public funds is common and enormous sums of state money are siphoned off by politicians and civil servants.

According to the OECD, in Papua New Guinea the involvement of the government in the economy is significant and approximately 70% of the procurement of goods and services in the country is estimated to be government procurement. Government procurement is undertaken at the local, provincial and national levels.

Government procurement is required by law to be transparent and to go through a competitive tender. In 2011, a corruption scandal in the procurement of medical supplies to the country’s public health services hit the headlines. The procurement of medical supplies falls under the National Health Department (NDOH) which allegedly received kick-backs from pharmaceutical companies for years. Hospitals were voluntarily starved of medical supplies to create a situation of emergency allowing the NDOH to bypass normal procurement rules.

In addition, the strong tradition of “Wantok” (mutual assistance to kin) and the small number of businesses operating domestically create opportunities for corruption at all levels of government procurement.

Political corruption

Papua New Guinea’s party system is very weak and political parties are perceived by the people as the most corrupt institution in the country, with 70% of the citizens surveyed by the Global Corruption Barometer qualifying them as corrupt or extremely corrupt. Political parties are followed closely by the Parliament, deemed to be corrupt or extremely corrupt by almost 60% of the respondents.

Political parties are loosely organised, have limited popular support and political legitimacy, making elected officials more susceptible to undue influence and corruption, since they are not sufficiently held accountable by their party or constituency. Historically, it has been quite common for members of Parliament to switch political parties or resign from their party. This situation significantly weakens the political system and is the ground to the instability of government coalitions.

The Organic Law on Political Parties and Candidates (OLIPPAC) of 2003 aims to stabilize and frame the country’s political activities, making it more difficult for elected persons to switch alliances. This legislation also provides for more transparency and accountability in the political sphere, banning anonymous donations to parties or candidates, limiting possible contributions and requires political parties and candidates to report on their operational and/or campaign finances to the Registry of Political Parties. Even though the OLIPPAC makes foreign contributions to political parties illegal, there have been several cases of candidates and party leaders getting financial support from foreign entrepreneurs in exchange for logging or exploitation permits.

Freedom House states that Papua New Guinea is an electoral democracy and electoral observers deemed the last elections in the country to be free and fair. In some districts however, elections caused more problems: in the highlands and certain coastal areas, intimidation, violence, vote buying, ballot rigging and clan voting were reported to be widespread.

Political loyalty in Papua New Guinea is driven mostly by personal, regional or clan ties, and it is not uncommon for government officials to divert public resources to satisfy tradition clan obligations.

Nepotism and cronyism

In its 2012 report on Papua New Guinea the Bertelsmann Foundation notes that the general level of trust among citizens of the country is rather low and that existing trust relationships are largely based on clan loyalties, called the “wantok” system or wantokism.

Wantokism plays a central role in the social, economic and political life of Papua New Guinea, and transfers traditional norms and tribal obligation into the modern bureaucratic system. Through the “wantok” system, kin and cronies are nominated to key positions; business procedures are fast-tracked; and state funds are embezzled and diverted to the needs of certain groups. Applied to public and political affairs, the “wantok” system creates significant opportunities for corruption.

Kleptocracy and money laundering

Corruption of senior public officials and their theft of public resources are the most serious corruption challenges faced by the country. Leaked US diplomatic cables describe Papua New Guinea as a country in which natural resources and development aid are used to enrich the political elites rather than being used for the social and economic development of the country.

One of the most significant cases of theft of public funds in Papua New Guinea is known as the “Paraka scams” named after Paul Paraka, one of the lawyers that produced over 700 false claims for compensation against the State which were approved by government bureaucrats without the claims being approved by relevant courts. The Commission of Inquiry, who revealed the scandal, stated that the system had been “grossly abused allowing illegitimate and improper claims”. It estimates the amounts stolen from the public purse to reach 780 000 000 Kina, the equivalent to €280 000 000.

Papua New Guinea faces significant risks of money laundering, according to the Asia Pacific Group on Money Laundering. The most important source of illicit proceeds is corruption, though the misappropriation of public funds, the unlawful attribution of exploitation licences in the extractives industry, illegal logging etc.

Papua New Guinea is not considered to be an important financial centre but the lack of law enforcement and oversight makes it an attractive money-laundering location. Illicit proceeds from Papua New Guinea are also laundered abroad, particularly in Australia, through banks and purchase of property. A high level public official even declared that officials from Papua New Guinea are “using Australia as the Cayman Islands”.

Organised crime

Organised crime is increasingly becoming a problem in Papua New Guinea. The limited capacity of the customs authorities and border control makes it a preferred route for drug shipment. Papua New Guinea is also a source, transit and destination country for individuals subjected to human trafficking. Most common offenses are forced prostitution, sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and forced labour in mines, logging or fisheries. Women and girls are traded for political favours and votes. Human trafficking is facilitated by government officials who turn a blind eye in exchange for bribes.

Governance structure and anticorruption efforts in Papua New Guinea

With the reforms adopted over the last decade, Papua New Guinea’s governance structure is rather robust and comprehensive on paper both regarding laws and institutions. The government has recently taken a strong stand against corruption by adopting a National Anti-corruption Strategy 2010-2030 that should trigger reforms and innovations to fight corruption. It established a Plan of Action for 2012-2015 that would help implement the strategy in the short/middle term.

However, Papua New Guinea’s anti-corruption strategy faces major implementation challenges. Most anticorruption institutions are hampered by lack of sufficient resources. Institutions are created without the necessary funds; not only are the entities understaffed but existing staff also lacks adequate education and training.

Another inadequacy related to anti-corruption efforts in the country is the confusion created by the overlapping laws and institutional responsibilities. Generally speaking, there is a massive gap between the formal rules and laws, that can seem comprehensive and uncompromising, and their implementation and impact.

Challenges to reform and lessons learnt

The current government has voiced its intention to take the fight against corruption seriously and adopted the National Anti-corruption Strategy to mark its good-will. Experts however state that it has so far been near to impossible to carry out a successful anti-corruption policy and that lawmakers have never been serious about promoting good governance. The former Prime Minister admitted that in Papua New Guinea “corruption is systemic and systematic” and as long as the corruption scheme and status quo continues to benefit political leaders and the country’s elite there will be reluctance to undertake any kind of reform.

As highlighted above, the main issue related to corruption in Papua New Guinea is not the absence of rules but the lack of implementation of the existing framework. The shortcomings of the fight against corruption persist because of the lack of genuine assessment of the effectiveness and impact of anticorruption policies, beyond the existence of rules and the number of cases prosecuted.

Legal framework

International legislation

Papua New Guinea is a state party to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) since the 16th of July 2007. Papua New Guinea was also part of the first group of countries reviewed in the framework of the Implementation Review Mechanism and the executive summary is publicly accessible on the UNODC website. Transparency International PNG and the UNCAC Coalition have also produced a review report on the implementation of UNCAC in 2012 stating that, despite some progress, the implementation of the Convention, Papua New Guinea is still below satisfactory.

Papua New Guinea is neither a state party to the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, nor to the Palermo Convention on transnational organised crime of 2000.

National legislation

Papua New Guinea’s Criminal Code criminalises active and passive domestic bribery. One deficiency pointed out by experts is the overlapping of bribery offenses in domestic law making it unclear which text should apply to a situation falling under the realm of several laws. Moreover, the legislation regarding active bribery is incomplete since it does not cover all forms of active bribery and is limited to the act of “offering a bribe”. In addition, bribery of foreign officials is not criminalised in Papua New Guinea. The Interpretation Act includes legal persons in its definition of “person”, but there is no case law in which a company was prosecuted for bribery.

Money-laundering is a crime in Papua New Guinea under the Proceeds of Crime Act. Local news articles state that the latter permitted the first civil forfeiture order in Papua New Guinea, by which the state recovered over €350 000 that been embezzled through a corrupt procurement project.

Papua New Guinea’s Constitution and the Organic Law on the Duties and Responsibilities of Leadership of 1975 provides the framework regulating conflicts of interest for Ministers, civil servants and Members of Parliament, preventing them to engage in any enterprise that might give rise to a conflict of interest. It contains provisions regarding Ministers and Members of Parliament as well as their families, regarding government contracts, previous employment as well as receipt of gifts and hospitality. Papua New Guinea’s legal framework required members of the government, parliamentarians as well as civil servants to disclose their assets, to facilitate the detection of conflicts of interest and illicit enrichment. There is no restriction on entering the private sector after one’s mandate, leaving a possibility for the “revolving door” phenomena to occur.

Political financing in Papua New Guinea is regulated through the Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates of 2003, creating the Commission on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates (previously named Central Fund Board of Management). Political parties receive public funding through this commission that comprises a part of the national budget, donations from citizens, non-citizens and international organisations, the latter not being allowed to contribute directly to political parties. Corporate donations to political parties is allowed in Papua New Guinea, and there is an annual limit to contributions of 500 000 PGK (app. 180 000€). Political parties ought to report on their finances to the Registry of Political Parties annually. Political parties and candidates need to report their campaign finances, including income and expenditures, within the three months following the results of a general election. Lastly, the Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates also bans vote buying.

Papua New Guinea does not yet have a legal or institutional framework to protect whistleblowers. A draft law on whistleblower protection is currently under review. The country’s constitution is the only legal document referring to freedom of information. It grants the citizens reasonable access to official documents, but access is relatively restricted.

Institutional framework

Judiciary

The Constitution of Papua New Guinea guarantees the independence of the judiciary and protects judges from political interference. By law, judges cannot be removed from office without justification (crime, political involvement etc.). They are, however, subjected to periodic re-appointments which exposes them to undue influence. Judges are generally recruited based on professional criteria and the confirmation is the responsibility of an independent body, the Judiciary and Legal Services Commission Appointments Authority.

The judiciary is seen as largely independent, but the institution lacks both financial and human resources. Moreover, corruption in the judicial system is a recurring problem, especially at lower levels. Several magistrates have been charged with corruption in the last years. The lack of adequate resources and integrity in the judicial system create a situation of judicial backlog and many public officials have managed to escape prosecution for abuse of power and corruption.

Sweep Task Force

The Sweep Task Force was established in 2011 by a resolution of the Cabinet to investigate alleged corruption and mismanagement in government units. The task force is currently chaired Sam Koim from the Department of Justice and Attorney-General, and is composed among others of members from the police department, the Ombudsman Commission, the Justice Department.

The Sweep Task Force has been very active in uncovering corruption practices in Papua New Guinea. The task force indicates having registered over 170 complaints in 2012 with more than 50 of them under investigation. The task force took a strong stand, calling Papua New Guinea a “mobocracy” and its politicians a mob.

The office of the Sweep Task Force were vandalised in early 2013. The chairman stated that this was expected and that all files had been saved elsewhere.

National Anti-Corruption Alliance

The National Anti-Corruption Alliance was created in 2004 as an alliance of agencies involved in the investigation and prosecution of fraud and corruption cases. It has been operating since 2006 and aims to effectively coordinate investigation and prosecution of corruption cases. The NACA brings together representatives from Department of Treasury, Office of the Auditor General, Customs, Internal Revenue Commission, Department of Personnel Management, Public Prosecutor, Solicitor General, Ombudsman Commission, Police, and the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs.

The lack of funds of this alliance is an obstacle to successful investigation of corruption cases, as are the significant delays in the work of the judicial system. The NACA’s staff is not adequately educated and trained.

Anti-Corruption Commission

Papua New Guinea does not currently have an anticorruption commission but Prime Minister Peter O’Neill announced, in early 2013, that a commission would soon be set up as part of the National Anti-corruption Strategy. He claimed that the commission will be independent and receive sufficient resources to undertake the task of investigating cases of passive and active bribery. This anti-corruption commission would take over the tasks for the Sweep Task Force.

Ombudsman Commission

The 1975 Constitution of Papua New Guinea provides for the establishment of an Ombudsman Commission to promote good leadership and governance. The Chief Ombudsman and two Ombudsmen are appointed by the Governor General upon recommendation from by the Ombudsman Appointments Committee. This Committee comprises of five members, among which are the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice.

The Ombudsman Commission lacks resources and adequate powers; it investigates cases of political leaders suspected of having engaged in corruption but its mandate to investigate ends when a politician resigns. Moreover, in 2010 the Parliament decided to amend the Organic Law on the Duties & Responsibilities of Leadership and the Constitution to revoke the Ombudsman Commission’s powers to issue directives to public service leaders that were previously used to prevent the abuse of public funds. The 2011 National Anti-corruption Strategy aims to strengthen its capacity.

Financial Intelligence Unit

The Proceeds of Crime Act of 2005 establishes Papua New Guinea’s Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) within the police. The FIU receives and analyses cash transaction reports and suspicious transaction reports, refers them to the appropriate authority, produces statistics, identifies training needs and conducts investigations.

The FIU does not have sufficient resources to undertake its duties, creating serious backlogs and making the institution inefficient. Transparency PNG indicates that in 2012, when the UNCAC review report was published, the FIU had not yet completed any full investigation or prosecution. The FIU justified this inaction, during the production of the 2011 APG/OECD mutual evaluation report on anti-money laundering efforts, by referring to its archaic information management system as well as to the high level of corruption of the police and its lack of trust in the latter. News articles indicate that in February 2013 the government committed, to improve the country’s anti-money laundering regime, both to better fight corruption and to avoid being blacklisted by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

The Office of the Auditor-General

The Office of the Auditor General is a constitutional body in charge of inspecting, auditing and reporting the use of public money. The Auditor-General is nominated by the head of State with the advice of the National Executive Council. S/he reports directly to the Parliament and is not subject to the control of any authority in the exercise of her/his functions, according to the Constitution.

As many other cogs of Papua New Guinea’s anticorruption system, the Office of the Auditor-General lacks resources to carry out its tasks, and many government bodies fail to cooperate. The Audit Act of 1989 gives the Auditor-General the power to prosecute any individual guilty of misusing public funds. However, in 2008, the office of the Secretary of the Department of Justice and Attorney General informed the Office of the Auditor General that this section of the Act was invalid, making the Auditor-General effectively powerless. This happened shortly after the Auditor-General reported that approx. €300 million had been stolen from the country’s development funds.

Other actors

Informal institutions

As mentioned above, in Papua New Guinea kinship and clans play a significant role in interpersonal trust relationships. Customary/traditional law is recognised in the Constitution of the country. With about 85% of the population living in rural areas, community-based traditional forms of justice have a critical function, in many communities in Papua New Guinea. Minor disputes are handled through traditional informal means, such as negotiation/mediation by kin, religious leaders or the local “big man”. Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms vary from one community to the other but, in general, encourage the reparation of damaged social relations, through payments of compensations etc.

Traditional forms of justice in Papua New Guinea are recognised as effective dispute resolution systems by many international organisations. UNDP, for example, supports Melanesian conflict resolution approaches to bring opposed parties to peace. These informal institutions present weaknesses nevertheless. UNICEF points to the fact that they do not include safeguards against violations of human rights, especially regarding children and women, that they are rather inconsistent and that there is a strong risk of partiality and corruption of decision-makers in the community.

Media

The Constitution of Papua New Guinea guarantees freedom of expression and of the media, but the country does not have an access to information law. Media in the country is quite vibrant and the ownership structure is diversified, neutralising potential attempts by media owners to manipulate the information. It is important to note that PNG’s most circulated daily newspaper is owned by Malaysian logging giant Rimbunan Hijau that dominates 80% of the enormously corrupt forestry sector.

Harassments and threats against journalists as well as attempts to interfere in their work happen occasionally in Papua New Guinea, especially in the context of investigative journalism uncovering corruption scandals. The relations between media and government became increasingly tense with the constitutional coup of 2011.

The Media Council of Papua New Guinea (MCPNG) serves as an interest group pressuring the government for increased freedom of the press and manages a complaints mechanism. This entity also developed a code of ethics for journalists. The reputation of the MCPNG was tainted by allegations of corruption when its executive director was suspended for fraud in 2011.

The government does not represent an obstacle to access the internet but the geography and infrastructure limit it materially, with a penetration of about 2% in 2011.

Civil society

Papua New Guinea has an active civil society, with a large number of interest groups and NGOs. The constitution provides for the right to assembly and associations, and the government does generally not restrict it. Civil society organisations operate in various sectors and many are particularly active in the protection of the environment, which is partly a consequence of the exploitation of the country’s natural resources. In 2010, a group of CSOs announced the launch of Publish What You Pay Papua New Guinea aiming to improve transparency in the extractives industry and to advocate for the adoption of EITI in Papua New Guinea.

Despite the existence of many organisations, experts recognise that only a handful of them have proper access to the power circles, giving them the possibility to influence policy. Most CSOs remain excluded from decision-making processes and limit their action to providing social services.