Transition to modernity: Migrant settlements and customary land issues in Port Moresby

by Mary Walta, Australian National University

For Papua New Guineans, the transition from traditional lifestyles in rural villages to modernity in urban settlements started around 60 years ago. Those most affected by this change are the 13 per cent of the rural population who now make up the rapidly growing urban centres. In this short time, they have relinquished their traditional subsistence lifestyles in isolated settlements to live among fellow countrymen in some of the most socioculturally diverse settlements on the planet. Although lifestyles have changed in the urban setting, traditional norms and values still inform the adjustment to urban settlement and livelihoods.

This article highlights some key issues involved in this rapid transition including: the features of traditional social organisation and its ability to integrate non-kin; the key challenges of urban settlement; and recent urbanisation policy.

Traditions and cultures

The history of settlement of Port Moresby as the capital of Papua New Guinea (PNG) started in the 1950s. Before then, the linguistically and culturally unique groups from the islands, coastal and inland areas of PNG lived in scattered, isolated villages numbering a few hundred people where each of around 840 different language groups had their own cultures steeped in traditions passed down through generations. This diversity of cultures has been so successful because their social systems focus on social cohesion that provides a common identity reinforced by social protection based on obligation and reciprocation. Such practices have ensured kinship group membership providing broadly equal opportunities for self-sustaining livelihoods and security.

Despite massive change since colonisation began, kinship structures have retained their resilience. Kinship and inheritance patterns are mainly organised through marriage along parental lines of descent. However, these arrangements remain flexible to accommodate individuals who do not share kinship bonds, thereby expanding the prospects of the group by widening the networks of obligation and reciprocation. This social diversification takes place through marriage and the adoption of individuals from other kinship groups.

At the centre of traditional understanding of land is kinship identity and belonging to place. This is based on being one with the forces of nature that explains peoples’ existence and passage through time. Rituals enacted through stories, dance and legends that centre on protection of land laid claim to by ancestors are passed down through the generations. This inherent sense of belonging imparts deep respect and obligation to an area’s maintenance and ensures customs and behaviours adjust to changes to meet this end. As such, the descent-group leadership, in consultation with the community, oversees the community’s changing circumstances and needs for land resources and its use.

Land in pre-colonial Port Moresby

Settlement of the South Papuan coastal area, now known as Port Moresby, has had a long history of relocation of villages during periods of hostilities between and within the original inhabitants and immigrant groups. The area was originally populated by Koita and Koiari Papuan language speakers and were later joined by Eastern and Western Motu groups, descendants of seafaring Austronesians who originally arrived in PNG some 2500 years ago. Around 500 years ago, peaceful settlement in their current locations was brokered with Koita and Koiari inter-marrying with Eastern and Western Motu groups, respectively.

The contemporary traditional villages in Port Moresby are a mixture of primarily Koita-only villages and inculturated Motu-Koita villages. The latter developed when the Koita moved into the established Motu villages and adopted the Motu language and many of their cultural norms. Although the Koita relinquished their language and culture, they remained in overall control of providing land access to Motu groups.

The Motu-Koita and Koita traditions of land inheritance primarily follow patrilineal descent rules. However, these inheritance patterns also accommodated such changes as fathers passing on land to daughters at marriage as well as people being adopted into the village group inheriting land access. Over time, other changes to land access have resulted in overlapping land access interests. In the case of mixed kinship lineages, upon the death of a primary land access holder, land access determination is returned to the original group for resolution. Overall, traditional norms have been flexible and have adjusted to changing social circumstances. These sorts of changes included Koita customary groups sharing land access with Motu-Koita groups when land was in abundant supply and sufficient to meet their land-based subsistence needs. Such examples illustrate the traditional understandings of land access and how accommodating outsiders was founded on a collective understanding of land access for all members, with land territory oversight remaining with the original occupiers. It is this long history of integration within these groups that may have predisposed them to accommodating settlers over the last 60 years.

Changes to traditional understandings and customary land

In 1873, before Australia took control of what became the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, the London Missionary Society bought blocks of Hanuabada land located along the coast on the outskirts of Port Moresby for their Polynesian missionaries. The missionaries’ immersion in village life and developing understanding of cultural ways aided acceptance of their presence and message. The scriptures formed the basis of enlightenment and pressure for the Motu-Koita to abandon customs deemed inappropriate from religious and Western viewpoints. Within 10 years, the missionaries had translated the gospels into Motu and children were being schooled in English. Although gradual, change to traditional practices and a new emphasis of developing community around church activities developed. The increasing familiarity that Hanuabadans developed with outsiders paved the way for occupation and later township development of the area by the Australian Colonial Administration, and also provided the foundations for advantageous social relations.

In 1885, the first land blocks in Port Moresby were bought by the British administration but much of the land after these initial purchases was acquired without purchase. Development of the township proper did not take place until the Australian administration took over from the British in 1906. From this period onwards, Port Moresby with its rapid influx of Europeans was at the centre of the greatest change to traditional ways. A strict policy of excluding nearby villagers from administration areas was enforced from the outset and the colonial administrators who were selective in their dealings with individuals appointed ‘chiefs’ with whom to negotiate land matters. These appointees were often those who had successfully converted to Christianity but were not necessarily the descent-group leaders or big men within the village community who were traditionally responsible for making such decisions. What impact this may have had on the leadership common to the Motu-Koita and Koita is unclear but it may explain why ongoing modern-day contestations regarding these early land dealings exist. Furthermore, European concepts of ‘custom’, ‘landownership’ and ‘law’ that have been adopted have no equivalent meaning to traditional societies. Since such concepts had no relationship to traditional frames of understanding, it is not surprising that people found ways to apply their own meanings that gave them relevance.

Land as a commodity

The introduction of the cash economy under colonialism brought with it the concept of land having a monetary value. Land became a commodity, with an owner, a surveyed boundary and legal title that enabled the owner to sell or lease the land and use the title as collateral for obtaining bank loans. The laws relating to land in PNG were originally developed during colonial times to legally define and register customary landowning groups and to transfer compensation payments for resource exploitation. Determining the ‘owners’ is complicated both by the various descent systems customary group have and by boundaries that change over time. Those subjected to these laws have manipulated the ownership and boundary criteria which now form the basis for ongoing contestation between members of landowning groups. This is mainly because many do not fully comprehend the significance of legal arrangements and steady sources of income and economic development are not common for most Papua New Guineans. These same laws have been reviewed and redesigned to mobilise customary land for development, including urbanisation. This is discussed later.

Rural migrant settlement on urban customary land

The initial wave of rural–urban migration to the capital began after WWII when colonial restrictions still applied to free movement of indigenes. These migrants had Motu kin connections from Gulf and Papua Provinces and were readily incorporated within Port Moresby’s traditional villages and not subject to the administration’s oversight. Lifting restrictions on migration in the early 1960s coincided with increasing investment in education, commerce, and health in Port Moresby after which time, the population rapidly transitioned to one increasingly dominated by Papua New Guineans. Since then, migration to the capital from the highlands, coastal and islands’ regions of the country has continued unabated, primarily in response to rural underdevelopment.

The ethnically diverse mix of traditional groups coming together for the first time was widely anticipated to be the cause of considerable social tension. This was especially the case after two pre-Independence riots that mobilised Papuans against New Guineans in Port Moresby. The riots were in response to the influx of ‘outsiders’ usurping opportunities from the Papuans and were widely anticipated to be a forerunner to continuing violence in relation to rural migrant settlement in the capital. However, since these incidents, there have been no mass rallies or riots instigated either by customary landowning groups or the multi-ethnic settlement population in response to their exclusion from urban development. Although ethnic violence does occasionally occur between settlement groups, these have largely been localised and of short duration. This is a significant testament to the flexibility and patience shown on all sides despite the ethnic diversity and entrenched inequalities that have continued to increase since. It also demonstrates the long term experience and capacity of the Motu-Koita and Koita groups to accommodate outsiders in their land territories.

At Independence in 1975, the new indigenous political elite expressed their vision for the protection of customary ways and equal participation in development under the PNG Constitution. However, a legal framework and policies for urban development through rural–urban migration were not forthcoming; neither were there any visionaries to champion the cause of equal participation for those living in traditional villages or rural migrant settlers increasingly taking up residence in urban areas. Instead the colonial legacy of excluding rural migrants from the formal urban setting and planning was adopted, largely denying them access to housing, urban services or avenues to gain the necessary skills for employment opportunities.

Private housing and rental market costs have continued to be prohibitively high and beyond the means of rural migrants. In the absence of any formal avenues to make demands for adequate shelter or urban services, rural migrants have relied on their shared history of traditional norms with kin connections to negotiate customary land access. Their settlement patterns reflect the strong sociocultural bonds that kinship provides in ethnic group co-location. Many of the longer standing settlements have seen a rise in multi-ethnic groups forging alliances and a greater mix of socioeconomic groups living together. These changes point to growing ethnic tolerance and development of a widening community structure. Their mainly basic, self-help housing structures reflect both the availability of funds to build as well as tenure uncertainty in the face of ongoing evictions and demolition of settlements to make way for urban infrastructure development. The rise in political patronage, often in contravention of the formal and legal processes, has helped favoured settlers gain access to land and to water and power supply lines that traverse nearby settlements.

Settlement growth and lack of administrative oversight

The absence of coordinated institutional and administrative oversight of settlement development, largely due to the lack of recognition of the permanency of settlements, is reflected in the paucity of accurate data representing urban settlement development and growth. According to recent estimates, about one million people now live in Port Moresby with around half the population living in over 138 settlements, increasing at the rate of approximately 20 settlements per year. The distribution of settler populations on customary and state land remains unclear. However, the now exhausted availability of state land for settlement, the expansion of peri-urban settlement on customary land occurring since the 1980s, and an average annual migrant population increase of 7.8 per cent from 1980 to 2000 are all factors that indicate that customary land is the only option for rural migrants to secure land access. The rapid increase in urban land values and the use of customary land as the primary asset of landowners have been the main drivers for customary landowner groups developing quasi-legal arrangements with settlers. These arrangements help to secure an equitable return for landowners in the absence of a legal framework for customary land dealings.

Claims on customary land

The contemporary scale and pace of urbanisation and the commodification of land in Port Moresby reveal a complex diversity of interest groups making claims on customary land with increasing litigation over access and ownership conflicts. Customary land groups, while continuing to contest the validity of colonial alienation of land, at the same time engage with settlers — on both state and customary land — using traditional norms and financial arrangements that bridge the traditional and legal mechanisms for land access. Increasing outright settlement on customary land has frustrated customary groups’ capacity to obtain benefits for what is their only asset. Migrant settlers, who now significantly outnumber the customary landowning groups in Port Moresby, represent multiple urban born generations made up of diverse ethnic groupings that consider themselves permanent residents with rights to the city. Although documentary evidence is increasingly used to record transactions between migrant settlers and customary land owners, these are neither in line with formal processes or recorded by formal institutions with oversight in land dealings and urban planning. Adding to this complexity, urban property developers have bypassed legitimate avenues using the more expedient methods of political support to gain access to customary land.

Policies to mobilise settlement upgrading

After 25 years of political inaction regarding urbanisation, a new political visionary appeared to take up the challenge of unplanned urbanisation on behalf of urban migrant settlers and customary landowners. The Honourable Dame Carol Kidu, the then Minister for Community Development, first raised the issue in Parliament as a matter of national concern in the late 1990s. Her commitment to bring about change in the face of initial lacklustre support in the Parliament set in motion the establishment of the Office of Urbanisation and the development of the National Urbanisation Policy (GoPNG 2010). The policy on unplanned settlement was seven years in the drafting and comprehensively addresses the wide ranging administrative, institutional and legal changes required to redress the complex issues that have developed in the absence of urban planning and management. It identifies an essential need to deal with dysfunctional institutional and administrative cultures, but falls short of identifying how such deficiencies might be addressed or any punitive measures to stem the corruption that has become commonplace in dealings with land, housing and settlements. The policy also envisages using the colonial land law to compulsorily acquire customary land for water, power and road easements, unless landowners voluntarily give the land to the state. This seems likely to threaten the goodwill of customary land owners and reduce the likelihood of a smooth transition towards mobilising customary land for urban settlement.

Incorporated Land Groups

Based on the problems created with the incorporation of customary land groups in resource projects, the PNG Constitutional and Law Reform Commission (CLRC) has recommended reforms to land legislation in relation to incorporated land groups (ILGs) (CLRC 2008). The reforms have been made specifically to protect the rights of all customary group members against the monopolising actions of individuals within the group. All ILG members must now prove rights to group membership by birth certificate and land boundaries are required to be surveyed. The group’s constitution requires annual general meetings, providing bank records of land dealings and to follow specified codes of conduct and dispute resolution processes. In Port Moresby, complexities have been created in customary land claims due to multiple groups holding title to the same land due to past fragmentation of groups. Whereas in the past such practices of shared access to land were a feature of the flexibility of customary land arrangements, these issues are not easily reconciled under the current land laws. Despite reforms to the incorporation of customary groups, significant concerns remain regarding the exclusion of members within landholding lineages and the cumbersome and costly nature of the incorporation processes.

The latest development in implementing the urbanisation policy and plan is the UN-Habitat-led multi-stakeholder strategy to upgrade all settlements and traditional villages in the National Capital District (NCD) in the decade 2016–2026 (UN-Habitat 2016). The strategy is the first step in achieving the PNG Vision 2050 goals of alleviating urban poverty and providing adequate housing and utilities to all city residents and ensuring proper management of these initiatives. The strategy’s focus is on providing secure land tenure, relocating and replacing all settlement and traditional village housing, and providing urban services, schools, clinics, shops and market facilities. Financing schemes for housing are proposed as is skills training for employment. Given the sociocultural significance of settlement layouts and the location of traditional villages, acceptance of such proposals should be considered with caution.

These plans and strategies all underline the profound changes needed to equalise the disparities in living conditions and access to services in urban areas in PNG. The time frame of 10 years appears overly ambitious and unexpected issues will undoubtedly arise during the upgrading process. Significant to a smooth transition will be genuine consultation and ownership of the strategy by all involved, including customary land owners and settler communities. What has been typical of such external agency programs in the past is a formal top down process of delivery where success is hampered by informal bottom up development practices. The importance of gaining trust among landowners and rural migrants is critical for the participation required for them to take ownership of the NCD citywide upgrading strategy. Of equal importance will be to find ways to resolve the quasi-legal land access arrangements from the perspectives of both landowners and rural migrant settlers who will not participate meaningfully in the process if they perceive that they are being sidelined for the sake of expediting agendas that leave them questioning whether they will be worse off.

Conclusion

Pre-colonial experience of complex land dealings between early occupants and more recent migrants reflect flexible arrangements by the customary landowners to manage their dealings with urban settlers. While a majority of settlers suffer significant inequality in the shape of a lack of secure title and access to services, overall the growth in just 60 years of the Pacific Island’s largest city and largest concentration of informal settlers has occurred relatively peacefully. Only since the late 1990s has recognition that settlements are permanent led to an emergence of urbanisation policy directed to addressing the needs of both customary landowners and settlers. Implementation of the urban policy initiatives, however, are likely to face many practical difficulties that must be addressed for the citywide settlement and traditional village upgrading strategies to be sustainable.

Books about Papua New Guinea – General (I)

1. General Introductory Works

  • Dorney, Sean. Papua New Guinea: People, Politics and History since 1975. Milson’s Point, New South Wales: Random House, 1990.
  • Ford, Edgar. Papua New Guinea: the Land and the People. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda, 1973.
  • King, David and S. Ranck, ed. Papua New Guinea Atlas: a Nation in Transition. Bathurst, New South Wales, and Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates and the University of Papua New Guinea, 1982.
  • Löffler, Ernst. Papua New Guinea. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson of Australia, 1979.
  • McKay, Roy D. New Guinea. Amsterdam: Time-Life, 1976.
  • May, Ronald J. and Hank Nelson, ed. Melanesia, Beyond Diversity. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. The Melanesian Way. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. Papua New Guinea: the Challenge of Independence. Melbourne: Penguin, 1990.

2. Encyclopedias and Similar Reference Works

  • The Papua New Guinea Handbook. Canberra, National Centre for Development Studies, 1990[frequently updated].
  • Rannells, Jackson. PNG: a Fact Book on Modern Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Ryan, Peter, ed. Encyclopaedia of Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press in association with the University of Papua New Guinea, 1972.

3. Bibliographies and Catalogs

  • Butler, Alan, comp. A New Guinea Bibliography. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984-1990.
  • Chakravarti, Papiya and Prith Chakravarti. Papua New Guinea Literature in English: a Bibliography, 1974-1985. Port Moresby: Owl Books, 1986.
  • Coppell, W. G. World Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations Relating to Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1978.
  • Creech, Heather. Guide to Legal Research in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Michael Somare Library, University of Papua New Guinea, 1986.
  • An Ethnographic Bibliography of New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Australian National University, 1968.
  • Faircloth, Susan, comp. Internal Migration and Urbanization in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 1978.
  • Population Studies in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1878.
  • Faircloth, Susan et al, comp. Politics and Government in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1978.
  • Gourlay, Ken. A Bibliography of Traditional Music in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Hays, Terence E. Anthropology in the New Guinea Highlands: an Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1976.
  • Hevelawa, Jacob, comp. A Guide to the Records of the Department of the Administrator. Port Moresby: National Archives and Public Records Services, 1991.
  • Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research. Papua New Guinea Post Courier Selective Index. Port Moresby: The Institute, 1972- .
  • Jones, Gregory Philip. Papua New Guinea History and Politics: an Annotated Bibliography, 1950-1974. Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education Library, 1975.
  • Lamont, Jim. Economics in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Lea, Mary Anne and Eve Rannells, comp. Checklist of Current Papua New Guinea Periodicals. Lae: Matheson Library, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 1985.
  • Lean, G. A. Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea: Research Bibliography. Lae: Department of Mathematics, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 1986.
  • Library Association of Australia, Archives Section. Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sydney: The Section, 1968.
  • Lutton, Nancy, comp. and ed. Guide to Manuscripts held in the New Guinea Collection of the University of Papua New Guinea Library. Port Moresby: The Library, 1980.
  • McConnell, Fraiser, comp. Papua New Guinea. Oxford: Clio Press, 1988.
  • McGrath, W. A. A Select Annotated Bibliography on Land Tenure in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Lands, Surveys and Mines, 1964.
  • MacIntyre, Martha. The Kula: a Bibliography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Moore, Clive. New Guinea History: a Bibliography of Journal Articles on Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. St Lucia, Queensland: Department of History, University of Queensland, 1992.
  • National Archives and Public Records Services of Papua New Guinea. Advisory Services to Government Departments and Others. Port Moresby: National Archives and Public Records Services. . . , 1992.
  • National Library Service. Papua New Guinea National Bibliography. Port Moresby: The Service, 1981- .
  • New Guinea Periodical Index. Port Moresby: The Library, University of Papua New Guinea, 1968-83.
  • Niles, Don, comp. Commercial Recordings of Papua New Guinea Music, 1949-1983. Port Moresby, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1984.
  • O’Sullivan, Catherine. Tradition and Law in Papua New Guinea: an Annotated and Selected Bibliography. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Patrick, Heather, comp. Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Papua New Guinea Branch, 1956-1980. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1981.
  • Potter, Michelle. Traditional Law in Papua New Guinea: an Annotated Selected Bibliography. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1973.
  • Rannells, Jackson. Directory of Libraries in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Library Association, 1986.
  • Selective Index to the Times of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: National Library Service, 1985- .
  • Sack, Peter, ed. German New Guinea. a Bibliography. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Wright, Wendy, ed. National Union List of Serials Held in Papua New Guinea Libraries. Port Moresby: National Library Service, 1981.

4. Descriptive Works and Personal Narratives, Post WWII

  • Allen, Benedict. Into the Crocodile’s Nest: a Journey Inside New Guinea. London: Macmillan, 1987; Paladin, 1989.
  • Bergman, Stan, trans. Maurice Michael. Through Primitive New Guinea. London: Hale, 1967.
  • Bourke, Myra Jean et al. Our Time but not our Place: Voices of Expatriate Women in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1993.
  • Butcher, Benjamin Thomas. We Lived with Head Hunters. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1963.
  • Cheesman, Evelyn. Time Well Spent. London: Travel Book Club, 1960.
  • Chub, Dmytro. New Guinea Impressions: (in the Foosteps of Myklukho-Maklay) Newport, Victoria: Lastvika, 1981.
  • Cleland, Rachel. Papua New Guinea: Pathways to Independence; Official and Family Life 1951-1975. Perth, Western Australia: Artlook Books, 1983.
  • Cousteau, Jean-Michel and Mose Richards. Cousteau’s Papua New Guinea Journey. New York: Harry N. Abrams; Sydney: R. D. Publishers, 1989.
  • Davies, David Michael. Journey into the Stone Age. London: Hale, 1969.
  • Gaisseau, Pierre Dominique, trans. Constantine Fitzgibbon. Visa to the Prehistoric World. London: E. Muller, 1957.
  • Gardi, Rene, trans. Eric Northcott. Tambaran: an Encounter with Cultures in Decline. London: Constable, 1960.
  • Gerstad, Joan. The Jungle Was Our Home. Helsinki: Osakeyhtio, 1957.
  • Johnson, Leslie Wilson. Colonial Sunset: Australia and Papua New Guinea 1970-1974. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1983.
  • Kerr, Martin D. New Guinea Patrol. London: Hale, 1973. Mitchell, William E. The Bamboo Fire: an Anthropologist in New Guinea. New York: Norton, 1978.
  • Saulnier, Tony, with the collaboration of Marcel Bisiaux, trans. Margaret Shenfield. Headhunters of Papua. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1963.
  • Selby, David. Itambu! Sydney: Currawong, 1963; London: Angus & Robertson, 1964.
  • Simpson, Colin. Adam in Plumes. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1954.
  • . Adam with Arrows. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1956.
  • . Plumes and Arrows: Inside New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1962.
  • Sinclair, James. Behind the Ranges: Patrolling in New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
  • Thalhammer, Christl. Adventures with New Guinea Headhunters. New York: Doubleday, 1965.
  • Willey, Keith. Assignment New Guinea. Brisbane: Jacaranda Press, 1965.
  • Williams, Maslyn. Stone Age Island: Seven Years in New Guinea. London: Collins, 1964.
  • The Stone Age Island: New Guinea Today. New York: Doubleday, 1964.
  • Wright, Malcolm. The Gentle Savage. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1986.

5. Descriptive Works, Post WWII, Largely or Mainly Pictorial

  • Anderson, James L. [photography, James L. Anderson; text, Donald M. Hogg]. New Guinea. Sydney: Reed, 1969.
  • . Cannibal: a Photographic Audacity. Sydney: Reed, 1970.
  • Birbaum, Phil [photographs by Phil Birnbaum, text by Andrew Strathern]. Faces of New Guinea. Darlinghurst, New South Wales: Emperor Publishing, 1990.
  • Bjerre, Jens. Savage New Guinea. London: Michael Joseph, 1964.
  • Brash, Elton et al. Faces and Voices of New Guinea: a National Portrait Album. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1986.
  • Cox, Paul and Ulli Beier. Home of Man: the People of New Guinea. Melbourne: Nelson, 1971.
  • De Courcy, Catherine; photographs by Douglass Baglin. The Jimi River Expedition, 1950: Exploration in the New Guinea Highlands. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Durack, Elizabeth. Face Value: Women in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Ure Smith, 1970.
  • . Seeing through Papua New Guinea: an Artist’s Impressions of the Territory. Melbourne: Hawthorn Press, 1970.
  • Holton, George [photography by George Holton, text by Kenneth E. Read]. The Human Aviary: a Pictorial Discovery of New Guinea. New York: Scribner, 1971.
  • Kirkland, David. Impressions of Papua New Guinea. Buranda, Queensland: Robert Brown & Associates, 1991.
  • Miller, Brian. The Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1983.
  • Mossel, Bob. Where No Road Goes. Goodwood, South Australia: Enterprise Publications, 1972.
  • O’Hanlon, Michael. Paradise: Portraying the New Guinea Highlands. London: British Museum Press; Bathurst, New South Wales: Crawford House Press, 1993.
  • Siers, James. Papua New Guinea. Wellington, New Zealand: Millwood Press, 1981.
  • Sinclair, James. The Highlanders. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press with Robert Brown & Associates, 1971.
  • . Wigmen of Papua. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Vogel, Alfred Anton, trans. M. A. Michael [photographs by D. Baglin]. Papuans & Pygmies. London: Barker, 1953.
  • Were, Eric. Perilous Paradise: Photo Story of New Guinea and its Emerging People. Mountain View, California: Pacific Press, 1968.

6. Guides

  • Austrade’s Business Guide to Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Trade Commission, 1990.
  • Guide to the Pronunciation of Papua New Guinea Place Names. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1975.
  • May, Ronald J. Kaikai Aniani: a Guide to Bush Foods, Markets and Culinary Arts of Papua New Guinea. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1984.
  • Perusse, Yvonne. Bushwalking in Papua New Guinea. Hawthorn, Victoria: Lonely Planet, 1993.
  • UBD Business to Business Directory. Papua New Guinea Business and Street Directory. Sydney: Universal Business Directories [frequent revisions].
  • Wheeler, Tony and Jon Murray. Papua New Guinea: a Travel Survival Kit. Hawthorn, Victoria: Lonely Planet, 1993.

7. Maps and Gazeteers

  • Gazeteer of Papua New Guinea. Washington, D.C.: Defense Mapping Agency, 1982.
  • Keket, Susan and W. Ivara. A Checklist of the Islands of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: National Library Service, 1982.
  • Papua New Guinea [map]. Washington, D. C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1989.
  • Papua New Guinea Gazeteer. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Place Names Committee, 1974.
  • Papua New Guinea General Reference Map. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea National Mapping Bureau, 1986.
  • Topographic Atlas, Papua New Guinea Series 1501: Scale 1:250 000. Canberra: Royal Australian Survey Corps, 1982.

8. Newspapers and Periodicals

  • Administration for Development. Port Moresby: Administrative College of Papua New Guinea, 1974- .
  • Bikmaus. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1980-
  • Catalyst: Social Pastoral Magazine for Melanesia. Goroka: Melanesian Institute for Pastoral and Socio-Economic Service, 1971- .
  • Language and Linguistics in Melanesia: Journal of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, 1981- .
  • Man in New Guinea: a Newsletter of Anthropological and Sociological Research in Papua and New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Papua New Guinea, 1969-1974 [continued as Research in Melanesia, q.v.].
  • Melanesian Journal of Theology. Goroka: Melanesian Association of Theological Schools, 1985- .
  • Melanesian Law Journal. Port Moresby: Faculty of Law, University of Papua New Guinea, 1970- .
  • Ondobondo. Port Moresby: Literature Department, University of Papua New Guinea, 1972- .
  • Oral History. Port Moresby: Department of History, University of Papua New Guinea, 1972-1974; Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974-.
  • Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs Review. Port Moresby: Department of Foreign Affairs, 1980- .
  • Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Port Moresby: Department of Agriculture and Livestock, 1985- .
  • Papua New Guinea Journal of Education. Port Moresby: Department of Education, 1971- .
  • Papua New Guinea Medical Journal. Port Moresby: Medical Society of Papua New Guinea, 1971- .
  • Papua New Guinea Post-Courier. Port Moresby: Post Printing, 1976- . Daily, except Saturday and Sunday.
  • Quarterly Economic Bulletin. Port Moresby: Bank of Papua New Guinea, 1973- .
  • Research in Melanesia. Port Moresby: Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Papua New Guinea, 1975- .
  • The Times of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Word Publishing, 1981- . Weekly.
  • Tok Bilong Haus Buk [i.e. Library Journal]. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Library Association, 1972- .
  • Yagl-Ambu: Papua New Guinea Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1974- .

Books about Papua New Guinea – Culture (II)

1. Folklore and Mythology

 

  • Abel, Russell William. Tales told in Papua: Four Original Papuan Stories retold in English. London: Livingstone Press, 1943.
  • Beier, Ulli, comp. When the Moon Was Big, and Other Legends from New Guinea. Sydney: Collins, 1972.
  • Beier, Ulli and Prithvindra Chakravarti, comp. and ed. Sun and Moon in New Guinea Folklore. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Brash, Elton and Nigel Krauth, ed. Traditional Poems, Chants and Songs of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Papua Pocket Poets, 1973.
  • Brown, Herbert A. Three Elema Myths. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Gehberger, Johann, trans. John J. Tschauder and Pamela Swadling. The Myths of Samap: East Sepik Myths from Samap, Mandi and Senampeli Recorded between 1938 and 1940. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Gillison, Gillian. Between Culture and Fantasy: a New Guinea Highlands Mythology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Hesse, Karl, trans. Ulli Beier. Baining Legends. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Hesse, Karl and Theo Aerts, trans. and ed. Theo Aerts. Baining Dances. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • . Baining Life and Lore. Port Moresby, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • Höltker, Georg, trans. Ulli Beier. Myths and Legends from Murik Lakes, Part 1. Port Moresby:Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1975.
  • , trans. Gabrielle Duigu. Myths and Legends of the Monumbo and Ngaimbom Papuans of Northeast New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Janssen, Hermann et al. Tolai Myths of Origin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Jenness, D. and A. Ballantyne. Language, Mythology and Songs of Bwaidoga: Goodenough Island, S. E. Papua. New Plymouth, New Zealand: T. Avery, 1928.
  • Köhnke, Glenys. The Shark Callers: an Ancient Fishing Tradition of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Yumi Press, 1974.
  • . Taim belong Tumbuna: Legends and Traditions of Papua New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Folk Tales of the Kiwai Papuans. Helsinki: Societas Scientarum Fennica, 1917.
  • Laupu, Jakob Mus, transcribed and trans. C. Dorothy A. Counts. Ol Stori bilong Laupu [The Stories of Laupu]. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • LeRoy, John. Fabricated World: an Interpretation of Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • , trans. and ed. Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • Lett, Lewis. Savage Tales. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1946.
  • Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, trans. Brian Elliott. Primitive Mythology: the Mythic World of the Australian and Papuan Natives. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1983.
  • McElhanon, Kenneth A., ed. Legends from Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Noble, Philip. String Figures of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • Pekoro, Morea. Orokolo Genesis: an Account of the Origin of the World and the People of Niugini as told in Hiri Motu. Port Moresby: Niugini Press, 1973.
  • Roleasmalik, Pensa M. Traditional Games of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Standards Division, Provincial Educational Services, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 1979.
  • Stokes, Donald S., comp. The Turtle and the Island: Folktales from Papua New Guinea, retold by Barbara Ker Wilson. Sydney: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978, 1980; Port Moresby: Web Books, 1985.
  • Strathern, Andrew, coll. and trans. Melpa Amb Kenan [Melpa Courting Songs]. Boroko: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • . ed. Wiru Stories (Southern Highlands Province) Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1983.
  • Vicedom, Georg F., trans. Andrew Strathern. Myths and Legends from Mount Hagen. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Wagner, Roy. Lethal speech: Daribi Myth of Symbolic Obviation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.
  • Young, Maribelle, comp. and trans. Bwaidoka Tales. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1979.

2. Visual Arts and Material Culture

  • Beier, Georgina. Modern Images from New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1975.
  • Beier, Ulli and Albert Maori Kiki. Hohao: the Uneasy Survival of an Art Form in the Papuan Gulf Melbourne: Thomas Nelson, 1970.
  • Bodrogi, Tibor. Art in North-east New Guinea. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1961.
  • Browne, Bob. The Best of Grass Roots, 1980-81. Port Moresby: Grass Roots Co., 1982.
  • . The Complete Roots 82: Includes the Letters to Misis Kwin!! Port Moresby: Grass Roots Comic Company, 1983.
  • Crawford, Anthony L. Aida: Life and Ceremony of the Gogodala. Bathurst, New South Wales: National Cultural Council of P. N. G. with Robert Brown & Associates, 1979.
  • Dark, Philip J. C. Kilenge Life and Art: a Look at a New Guinea People. London: Academy Editions, 1974.
  • Egloff, Brian J. and Gava Aura. Pottery of Papua New Guinea: the National Collection. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1977.
  • Firth, Raymond. Art and Life in New Guinea. London: The Studio, 1936; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Greub, Suzanne, ed. Authority and Ornament: Art of the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea. Basel: Tribal Art Centre, 1985.
  • Guiart, Jean. The Arts of the South Pacific. London: Thames & Hudson, 1963.
  • Haddon, Afred Cort. The Decorative Art of British New Guinea: a Study in Papuan Ethnography. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1894.
  • Kirk, Malcolm. Man as Art: New Guinea Body Decoration. London: Thames & Hudson, 1981.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. Ethnographical Collection from the Kiwai District of British New Guinea in the National Museum of Finland, Helsingfors (Helsinki): a Descriptive Survey of the Material Culture of the Kiwai People. Helsinki: Commission of the Antell Collection, 1933.
  • Leenhardt, Maurice, Arts of Oceanic Peoples. London: Thames & Hudson, 1950.
  • Lewis, Alfred Buell. Decorative Art of New Guinea, Consisting of the Two Complete Publications: Decorative Art of New Guinea, Incised Designs; and Carved and Painted Designs from New Guinea. New York: Dover Publications, 1973.
  • Lewis, Phillip H. The Social Context of Art in Northern New Ireland. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1969.
  • Linton, Ralph et al. Arts of the South Seas. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1946.
  • May, Patricia and Margaret Tuckson. The Traditional Pottery of Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Bay Books, 1982.
  • Newton, Douglas. Art Styles of the Papuan Gulf New York: Museum of Primitive Art, 1961.
  • . Crocodile and Cassowary: Religious Art of the Upper Sepik River, New Guinea. New York: Museum of Primitive Art, 1971.
  • . Massim: Art of the Massim Area, New Guinea. New York: Museum of Primitive Art, 1975.
  • . New Guinea Art in the Collection of the Museum of Primitive Art. New York: Museum of Primitive Art, New York Graphic Society, 1967.
  • Reichard, Gladys A. Melanesian Design: a Study of Style in Wood and Tortoise-shell Carving. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933; reprinted Hacker Art Books, 1969.
  • Schmitz, Carl August. Wantoat: Art and Religion of the North East New Guinea Papuans. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1963.
  • Scoditti, Giancarlo M. G. Kitawa: a Linguistic and Aesthetic Analysis of Visual Art in Melanesia. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990.
  • Serra Guell, Eudald and Alberto Polch Rusinol, English tr. The Art of Papua New Guinea. Barcelona: Ediciones Poligrafa; New York: Rizzoli, 1977.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Made in Niugini: Technology in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. London, British Museum Publications in association with the University of Durham Publications Board, 1988.
  • Simons, S. C. and H. Stevenson. Luk Luk Gen; Look Again: Contemporary Art from Papua New Guinea. Townsville, Queensland: Perc Tucker Regional Gallery, 1990.
  • Strathern, Andrew and Marilyn Strathern. Self-decoration in Mount Hagen. London: Duckworth, 1971.
  • Vargyas, Gabor. Data on the Pictorial History of North-east Papua New Guinea. Budapest: Ethnographical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1986.

3. Literature

A. Works in English by Melanesian Writers

  • Abaijah, Josephine and Eric Wright. A Thousand Coloured Dreams. Mount Waverley, Victoria: Dellasta Pacific, 1991.
  • Beier, Ulli, ed. Black Writing from New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1973.
  • . The Eye of God Does Not Grow Any Grass: the World through Poetry. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1978.
  • . Voices of Independence: New Black Writing from Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1980.
  • . Words of Paradise: Poetry of Papua New Guinea. South Melbourne, Victoria: Sun Books, 1972; Santa Barbara: Unicorn Press, 1973.
  • Brash, Nora Vagi. Taurama: a Play in Four Acts. Port Moresby: Owl Books, 1985.
  • Eri, Vincent [Sir Serei]. The Crocodile. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1970; Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1973; Auckland, New Zealand: Longman Paul, 1981.
  • Greicus, Mike, ed. Three Short Novels from Papua New Guinea. Auckland, New Zealand: Longman Paul, 1976.
  • Greicus, Mike and Elton Brash, ed. Niugini Stories. Port Moresby: Centre for Creative Arts, University of Papua New Guinea, 1973.
  • Hannett, Leo. et al. Five New Guinea Plays. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1970.
  • Javodimbari, Arthur. Return to my Land. Port Moresby: Papuan Pocket Poets, 1974.
  • Kagl, Toby Waim and Michael Yake Mel. Two Highland Novels from Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1984.
  • Kasaipwalova, John. Reluctant Flame. Port Moresby: Papuan Pocket Poets, 1971.
  • Kilage, Ignatius. My Mother Calls Me Yaltep. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1980; Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1984.
  • Krauth, Nigel and Elton Brash. Modern Poetry from Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Papua Pocket Poets, 1972.
  • Matane, Paulias. Aimbe, the Challenger. Port Moresby: Niugini Press, 1974.
  • . Aimbe, the Pastor: a Novel. Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press, 1979.
  • More, Ume. Whelma, My Name: Poetry. Port Moresby: Web Books, 1984.
  • Murphy, Greg, adapted and trans. Niugini, Niugini: a Trilogy of Folk Operas. Port Moresby: Department of Education, 1985.
  • Soabe, Russell. Maiba: a Papuan Novel. Washington, D. C.: Three Continents Press, 1985.
  • . Naked Thoughts: Poems and Illustrations. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1978.
  • . Wanpis. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Tawali, Kumulau. Signs in the Sky. Port Moresby: Papua Pocket Poets, 1970.
  • . Tribesmen’s Heartbeats. Madang: Kristen Press, 1978.

B. Works Dealing with Papua New Guinea by Foreign Writers (Mostly Australian)

  • Brown, John. Zaibatsu. Sydney: Walrus Books, 1983.
  • Downs, Ian. The Stolen Land. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1970; Melbourne, Wren, 1972.
  • Dutton, Geoffrey. Queen Emma of the South Seas: a Novel. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1976; Sun Books, 1988.
  • Innes, Hammond. Solomons Seal. London: Collins, 1980.
  • Kolia [Collier], John. Close to the Village. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • A Compulsive Exhibition. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1978.
  • . My Reluctant Missionary. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1978.
  • . Up the River to Victory Junction. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1978.
  • Krauth, Nigel, ed. New Guinea Images in Australian Literature. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1982.
  • Nisbet, Hume. The Land of the Hibiscus Blossom: a Yarn of the Papuan Gulf. London: Ward & Downey, 1888.
  • Shearston, Trevor. Something in the Blood: Short Stories. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1979.
  • . Sticks that Kill: a Novel. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1985.
  • . White Lies. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1986.
  • Stow, Randolph. Visitants. London: Secker & Warburg, 1979; Minerva, 1991.
  • West, Morris. Kundu: a Novel. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1957.

4. Music

  • Chenoweth, Vida. Musical Instruments of Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Papua New Guinea, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1976.
  • . The Usarufas and their Music. Dallas, Texas: SIL Museum of Anthropology, 1979.
  • Feld, Steven. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.
  • Fischer, Hans, trans. Philip W. Holzknecht, ed. Don Niles. Sound-producing Instruments in Oceania: Construction and Playing Technique, Distribution and Function. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1986.
  • Helfert, R. and David Holdsworth. Songs of Papua New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1974.
  • Kunst, Jaap. trans. Jeune Scott-Kemball. Music in New Guinea: Three Studies. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967.
  • Lavin, Sister M. Duchesne. Kada Kakailai: Our Song: Traditional Songs from P. N. G. Sydney: Warner Brothers Music, 1982.

5. Press and Broadcasting

  • Cass, Philip. ”A Comparison of the Coverage of the Bougainville Civil War in The Australian and The Times of PNG”. Australian Journalism Review, v. 14, no. 2, July-Dec 1992, pp.79-90.
  • . “New Guinea’s First Newspapers: the Missionary Press in German New Guinea 1886/1914”. Australian Journalism Review, v. 13, nos 1-2, Jan/Dec 1991, pp.71-81.
  • McKay, Ian K. Broadcasting in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Report of the Board of Inquiry into Broadcasting (including Television) in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: The Board, 1987.
  • Report of the National Newspaper Committee. Port Moresby: The Committee, 1980.

Books about Papua New Guinea – Economy (III)

1. General

  • Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook, May 1988. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • , The Papua New Guinea Economy: Prospects for Sectoral Development & Broad Based Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993.
  • Baldwin, George B. et al. Papua New Guinea, its Economic Situation and Prospects for Development: Report of a Mission Sent to Papua New Guinea by the World Bank . . . Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 1978.
  • Callick, Rowan. “A World Bank Prescription for PNG”. Australian Society, v.10, no. 9, Oct 1991, pp. 17-18.
  • Country Profile: Papua New Guinea. London: Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), 1986- .
  • Dahanayake, P. A. S., ed. Policy Options for Papua New Guinea under Economic Conditions Resulting from the BCL Crisis; Papers Presented at the NRI Economic Policy Seminar held on 15 February 1990. Port Moresby: National Research Institute, 1990.
  • . Post-Independence Economic Development of Papua New Guinea; Proceedings of the IASER Conference. . . 198 . . . Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • Daniel, Philip and Rod Sims. Foreign Investment in Papua New Guinea: Policies and Practices. Canberra: National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Elek, Andrew. “Papua New Guinea: Economic Recovery from the Bougainville Crisis and Prospects for the 1990s”. Economic Papers (Sydney) v. 11, no. 2, June 1992, pp. 13-31.
  • Fallon, John. The Papua New Guinean Economy: Prospects for Recovery, Reform and Sustained Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1992.
  • Fleeton, M. and R. McGregor. Papua New Guinea. Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • Goodman, Raymond et al. The Economy of Papua New Guinea: an Independent Review: a report to the Government of Papua New Guinea and the Government of Australia. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Gupta, Desh and Samson Polume, ed. Economic Policy Issues and Options in Papua New Guinea: Papers from a Seminar . . . at the University of Papua New Guinea . . . 1983. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1984.
  • Jarrett, Frank G. et al. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Stein, Leslie. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991.
  • Thompson, Herb. “Economic Theory and Economic Development in Papua New Guinea”. Journal of Contemporary Asia, v.21, no. 1, 1991, pp.54-67.
  • . The Political Economy of Papua New Guinea: Critical Essays. Manila: Journal of Contemporary Asia Publishers, 1992.

2. Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests

 

  • Antony, George et al. Agricultural Research in Papua New Guinea and the PNG Agricultural Research Priorities Project. Armidale, New South Wales: Faculty of Economic Studies, University of New England, 1990.
  • The Barnett Report: a Summary of the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Aspects of the Timber Industry in Papua New Guinea. Hobart: Asia-Pacific Action Group, 1990.
  • Bayliss-Smith, Timothy P. and Richard G. Feachem. Subsistence and Survival: Rural Ecology in the Pacific. London: Academic Press, 1977.
  • Brewster, Henry Charles. Pearls of Papua. Sydney: Endeavour Press, 1934.
  • Brunton, Brian D. Critique of the World Bank’s Tropical Forestry Action Plan Review for Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission, 1990.
  • Cartledge, Ian. A History of the Coffee Industry in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Coffee Industry Board, 1978.
  • Connell, John. Taim bilong Mani: the Evolution of Agriculture in a Solomon Island Society. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1978.
  • Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics: Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1983.
  • Denoon, Donald and Catherine Snowden. A Time to Plant and a Time to Uproot: a History of Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1981.
  • Donaldson, Mike and Kenneth Goode. Articulated Agricultural Development: Traditional and Capitalist Agricultures in Papua New Guinea. Aldershot and Sydney: Avebury, 1988.
  • Economically Ecologically & Socially Sustainable Tropical Rainforest Use: a Blueprint for Sustainable Use of PNG’s Forests: Definition and Indicators of Progress. Canberra: Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 1991.
  • Enyi, B. A. C. and T. Varghese, ed. Agriculture in the Tropics: Papers Delivered at the Tenth Waigani Seminar . . . 1976. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1977.
  • Fernando, Nimal A. and Thomas Nen, ed. Towards a National Forest Plan: Papers Presented at the National Forest Plan Seminar held at the Forest Research Institute, Lae . . . 1989. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research for the Department of Forests, 1990.
  • Fraser, A. I. Issues in Papua New Guinea Forest Policy. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1981.
  • Goldthorpe, C. G. Plantation Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Grossman, Lawrence S. Peasants, Subsistence Ecology, and Development in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  • Hackett, Clive. Matching Plants and Land: Development of a General Broadscale System from a Crop Project for Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Division of Water and Land Resources, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 1988.
  • Issues in Agricultural Policy: Papers Submitted at Two I. N. A. Seminars . . . 1985. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Jackman, Harry. Copra Marketing and Price Stabilization in Papua New Guinea: a History to 1975. Canberra: National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Jarrett. Frank G. and Kym Anderson. Growth, Structural Change and Economic Policy in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Agriculture. Canberra: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, 1989.
  • Jarrett, Frank G. and George Gollin. Innovation in Papua New Guinea Agriculture. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. Coral Gardens and their Magic: a Study of the Methods of Tilling the Soil and of Agricultural Rites in the Trobriand Islands. London: Allen and Unwin, 1935.
  • Millett, John, ed. I. N. A./Rural Industries Council Seminar: Papers Submitted and Presented to a Seminar together with Edited Discussion . . . Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1989.
  • . Papers submitted and presented to an I. N. A. Seminar . . . [Forestry Seminar . . . 1988]. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1988.
  • Mitio, Ngawae. Factors Affecting People’s Attitudes to Company Exploitation of their Resources: the Case of Timber. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • National Forest Policy. Port Moresby: Ministry of Forests, 1991.
  • Shaw, Barry. Agriculture in the Papua New Guinea Economy. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Roots of the Earth: Crops in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Kensington, New South Wales: New South Wales University Press, 1983.
  • Vigus, T. R., ed. The Future of Forestry in Papua New Guinea: Seminar Proceedings . . . 1985. Lae: Forestry Society of the Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 1986.
  • Walter, Michael A. H. B. Cattle Ranches Are about People: Social Science Dimensions of a Commercial Feasibility Study. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1980.

3. Development

 

  • Allan, Bill and Keith Hinchcliffe. Planning, Policy Analysis, and Public Spending: Theory and the Papua New Guinea Practice. Aldershot: Gower, 1982.
  • Amarshi, Azeem et al. Development and Dependency: the Political Economy of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. Australia’s Development Cooperation Program with Papua New Guinea: Supplementary Evidence to the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Inquiry into Australia’s Relations with Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Axline, W. Andrew. Decentralisation and Development Policy: Provincial Government and the Planning Process in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1986.
  • Boyce, Terence Michael. Infrastructure and Security: Problems of Development in the West Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1992.
  • Carrad, Bruce et al. Enga, Foundations for Development. Armidale, New South Wales: Department of Geography, University of New England, 1982.
  • Clunies-Ross, Anthony Ian and John Langmore, ed. Alternative Strategies for Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1973.
  • Finney, Ben R. Big-men and Businesss: Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in the New Guinea Highlands. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1973.
  • . Business Development in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: Pacific Islands Development Program, East-West Center, 1987.
  • Fisk, Enest Kelvin, ed. New Guinea on the Threshold: Aspects of Social, Political and Economic Development. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1966; Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968.
  • French, Will and Michael A. H. B. Walter. What Worth Evaluation?: Experiences with a World Bank-Aided Integrated Rural Development Project in the Southern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • Good, Kenneth. Papua New Guinea: a False Economy. London: Anti-Slavery Society, 1986.
  • Goodman, David et al. The Economy of Papua New Guinea: an Independent Review; a Report to the Government of Papua New Guinea and the Government of Australia. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • King, Peter et al. From Rhetoric to Reality: Papers from the Fifteenth Waigani Seminar. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1985.
  • Millett, John. Private Sector Development in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1990.
  • Samana, Utula. Papua New Guinea: Which Way?; Essays on Identity and Development. North Carlton, Victoria: Arena, 1988.
  • Sawyerr, Akilagpa, ed. Economic Development and Trade in Papua New Guinea: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Waigani Seminar 1981. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Stratigos, Susan and Philip J. Hughes, ed. The Ethics of Development: the 17th Waigani Seminar. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1986.
  • Valentine, Charles A. and Bettylou Valentine, ed. Going through Changes: Villagers, Settlers and Development in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • Waigani Seminar, 1967. New Guinea People in Business and Industry: Papers from the First Waigani Seminar. Canberra and Port Moresby: New Guinea Research Unit, 1967.
  • Weeks, Sheldon G., ed. Oksapmin, Development and Change. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1981.

4. Environmental Conservation

 

  • Davis, Mark. “BHP under Fire over Ok Tedi: Australian Conservation Foundation Concerned over Discharge of Tailings into PNG’s Fly River; Calls for Mine Closure”. Business Review Weekly, 15 May 1992, pp. 20-23.
  • “The Destructive Effect of Australian Aid: Papua New Guinea has the Largest Intact Rainforests in S. E. Asia and the Pacific and Much of the Money will be Funding Rainforest Destruction”. World Rainforest Report, no. 19, July 1991, pp. 21-22.
  • Hyndman, David. “Digging the Mines in Melanesia”. Cultural Survival Quarterly, v. 15, no. 2, 1991, pp. 32-39.
  • Maunsell & Partners, comp. Ok Tedi Environmental Study. Port Moresby: Ok Tedi Mining Ltd, 1982.
  • Morauta, Louise et al., ed. Traditional Conservation in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Today. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • Ongwamuhana, Kibuta. “Mining and Environmental Protection in Papua New Guinea”. Environmental and Planning Law Journal, v.8, no. 2, June 1991, pp. 133-144.
  • . “Papua New Guinea; an Environmental Update”. Environmental and Planning Law Journal, v.8, no.4, Dec 1991, pp. 347-352.
  • Petr, T., ed. The Purari: Tropical Environment of a High Rainfall River Basin. The Hague: Junk, 1983.
  • Winslow, John Hathaway, ed. The Melanesian Environment: Papers Presented at the Ninth Waigani Seminar . . . 1975.
  • Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1977.

5. Trade and Industry

  • Eiso, Dominic. The Impact of Mining on the Economic Development of Papua New Guinea: the Case of Bougainville Copper and Ok Tedi. Port Moresby: Kumah Enterprises, 1986.
  • Gibson, John. Rice Self-sufficiency and the Terms of Trade: Why Rice is a Good Thing to Import. Canberra: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, 1993.
  • Hughes, Helen. Industrialization, Growth and Development in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1984.
  • Jackson, Richard T. Ok Tedi, the Pot of Gold. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea and Word Publishing Co. 1982.
  • Jackson, Richard T. et al. The Impact of the Ok Tedi Project: a Report Prepared for the Department of Minerals and Energy. Port Moresby: Department of Minerals and Energy, 1980.
  • Jolly, Lindsay, et al. Commodity Price Stabilisation in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Lam, N. V. The Commodity Export Sector in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • Mikesell, Raymond F. Foreign Investment in Copper Mining: Case Studies of Mines in Peru and Papua New Guinea. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press for Resources for the Future, 1975.
  • Ok Tedi 24:00. Port Moresby: Ok Tedi Mining Ltd, 1983.
  • Pintz, William S. Ok Tedi: Evolution of a Third World Mining Project. London: Mining Journal Books, 1984.
  • Proceedings of the Conference on Small Scale Mining in Papua New Guinea: held at the University of Technology . . . 1983. Lae: Department of Chemical Technology, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 1983.
  • Robson, Peter. Trade and Trade Policy Issues in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Sinclair, James. South Pacific Brewery: the First Thirty Years. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1983.
  • Stephenson, H. H., ed. Bougainville: the Establishment of a Copper Mine. St Kilda, Victoria: Construction, Mining, Engineering Publications, 1973.
  • Stretton, Alan. The Building Industry in Papua New Guinea: the Industry Structure and Labour Market. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • Tilton, John et al. Mineral and Mining Policy in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1986.
  • Trebilcock, Michael J. Public Enterprises in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1982.
  • Whalley, John. Foreign Trade Policies in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1982.
  • Wilkinson, Rick. Where God Never Trod: Australia’s Oil Explorers across Two Centuries. Sydney: David Ell, 1991.

6. Labor

  • Colclough, Christopher and Philip Daniel. Wage Incomes and Wage Costs in Papua New Guinea: Challenges for Adjustment, Distribution and Growth. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1982.
  • Hess, Michael. Unions under Economic Development: Private Sector Unions in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • McGavin, P. A. The Labour Market in Papua New Guinea: a Survey and Analysis. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1986.
  • McKay, C. I. Private Sector Localisation and Economic Development in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1983.
  • National Planning Office. National Manpower Assessment, 1979-1990. Port Moresby: National Planning Office, 1981.

7. Transport and Communications

  • The First Sixty Years: Civil Aviation in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1982.
  • Hare, Dan. The Airmails of New Guinea, 1922-1942. Melbourne: Hawthorn Press, 1978.
  • Sinclair, James. Balus: the Aeroplane in Papua New Guinea. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1986-1990.
  • Uniting a Nation: the Postal and Telecommunications Services of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1984.
  • . Wings of Gold: How the Aeroplane Developed New Guinea. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1978.
  • Steenson, Eileen Maud. Flight Plan PNG. Adelaide: Rigby, 1974.

Books about Papua New Guinea – History (IV)

1. General

  • Biskup, Peter et al. A Short History of New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968; rev. ed. 1970.
  • Blong, Russell J. The Time of Darkness: Local Legends and Volcanic Reality in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Denoon, Donald and Roderic Lacey. Oral Tradition in Melanesia. Port Moresby: The University of Papua New Guinea and The Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1981.
  • Gash, Noel and June Whittaker. A Pictorial History of New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1975; Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Inglis, Kenneth Stanley, ed. The History of Melanesia: Second Waigani Seminar. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1971.
  • Jinks, Brian et al. Readings in New Guinea History. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Kolia, John. The History of Balawaia. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Latukefu, Sione, ed. Papua New Guinea: a Century of Colonial Impact. Port Moresby: National Research Institute and University of Papua New Guinea, 1989.
  • Moore, Clive R. et al., comp. Colonial Intrusion: Papua New Guinea 1884. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Nelson, Hank. Black, White and Gold: Goldmining in Papua New Guinea 1878-1930. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1976.
  • Oliver, Douglas. Black Islanders: a Personal Perspective of Bougainville 1937-1991. South Yarra, Victoria: Hyland House, 1991.
  • . Bougainville, a Personal History. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1974.
  • . The Pacific Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1951.
  • Price, A. Grenfell. The Challenge of New Guinea: Australian Aid to Papuan Progress. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1965.
  • Reed, Stephen Winsor. The Making of Modern New Guinea, with Special Reference to Culture Contact in the Mandated Territory. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society with the International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1943.
  • Rowley, Charles D. The New Guinea Villager: a Retrospect from 1964. Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1965.
  • Sack, Peter G. The Bloodthirsty Laewomba?: Myth and History in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1976.
  • . Land between Two Laws: Early European Land Acquisitions in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.
  • Sinclair, James. Papua New Guinea, the First 100 Years. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Souter, Gavin. New Guinea: the Last Unknown. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1963.
  • Thompson, Roger C. Australian Imperialism in the Pacific: the Expansionist Era 1820-1920. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1980.
  • Todd, Ian. Papua New Guinea: Moment of Truth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1974.
  • Waiko, John Dademo. A Short History of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Whittaker, June L. et al. Documents and Readings in New Guinea History: Prehistory to 1889. Brisbane: Jacaranda Press, 1975.
  • Wu, David Yen-Ho. The Chinese in Papua New Guinea, 18801980. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1982.

2. Prehistory

 

  • Bayliss-Smith, Tim and Jack Golson. ”A Colocasian Revolution in the New Guinea Highlands?: Insights from Phase 4 at Kuk Swamp, Upper Wahgi Valley, Papua New Guinea”. Archaeology in Oceania, v.27, no. 1, Apr 1992, pp. 1-21.
  • Bellwood, Peter. Man’s Conquest of the Pacific: the Prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • Daniels, John and Christian Daniels. “Sugarcane in Prehistory.” Archaeology in Oceania, v.28, no. 1, Apr 1993, pp. 55-59.
  • Dutton, Thomas Edward, ed. The Hiri in History: Further Aspects of Long Distance Motu Trade in Central Papua. Canberra: Australian National University, 1982.
  • Egloff, Brian. Recent Prehistory in Southeast Papua. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1979.
  • Egloff, Brian and Juliet Egloff. The Prehistory of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1978.
  • Guise, Alu. Oral Tradition and Archaeological Sites in the Eastern Central Province. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1985.
  • Hughes, Ian. New Guinea Stone Age Trade: the Geography and Ecology of Traffic in the Interior. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, 1977.
  • Irwin, Geoffrey. The Emergence of Mailu as a Central Place in Coastal Papuan Prehistory. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1985.
  • . The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific. Cambridge: Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Lauer, Peter K. Pottery Traditions in the D ‘Entrecasteaux Islands of Papua. St Lucia, Queensland: Anthropology Museum, University of Queensland, 1974.
  • Riesenfeld, Alphonse. The Megalithic Culture of Melanesia. Leiden: Brill, 1950.
  • Rivers, Williams Halse Rivers. The History of Melanesian Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914; reprinted Ousterhout: Anthropological Publications, 1968.
  • Specht, Jim and J. Peter White, eds. Trade and Exchange in Oceania and Australia. Sydney: Sydney University Press for Australian Museum and Anthropological Society of New South Wales, 1978.
  • Steensberg, Axel. New Guinea Gardens: a Study of Husbandry with Parallels in Prehistoric Europe. London: Academic Press, 1980.
  • Swadling, Pamela. How Long Have People Been in the Ok Tedi Impact Region?. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1983.
  • . Papua New Guinea’s Prehistory: an Introduction. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery in association with Gordon and Gotch, 1981.
  • Walker, Donald, ed. Bridge and Barrier: the Natural and Cultural History of Torres Strait. Canberra: Department of Biogeography and Geomorphology, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1972.
  • Watson, Virginia Drew and J. David Cole. Prehistory of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • White, J. Peter. Ol Tumbuna: Archaeological Excavations in the Eastern Central Highlands, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1972.
  • White, J. Peter with James F. O’Connell. A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Sydney: Academic Press, 1982.

3. Nineteenth Century European Exploration

  • Goode, John. The Rape of the Fly. Melbourne: Nelson, 1977.
  • Huxley, Thomas Henry, ed. Julian Huxley. Diary of the Voyage of H. M. S. “Rattlesnake”. London: Chatto & Windus, 1935; New York: Kraus Reprint Company, 1972.
  • Jukes, J. Beete. Narrative of the Surveying Voyage of H. M. S. “Fly”, Commanded by Captain F. P. Blackwood R. N. in Torres Strait, New Guinea and Other Islands of the Eastern Archipelago during the Years 1842-46 together with an Excursion into the Interior of the Eastern Part of Java. London: T. and W. Boone, 1847.
  • MacGillivray, John. Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. “Rattlesnake”, Commanded by the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R. N., F. R. S. etc. during the Years 1846-1850; Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, etc. London: Boone, 1852.
  • Macmillan, David S. A Squatter Went to Sea: the Story of Sir William Macleay’s New Guinea Expedition (1875) and his Life in Sydney. Sydney: Currawong, 1957.
  • Moresby, John. Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea and the D’Entrecasteaux Islands; a Cruise in Polynesia and Visits to the Pearl-shelling Stations in Torres Straits of H. M. S. Basilisk. London: Murray, 1876.
  • Niau, Josephine Hyachinthe. The Phantom Paradise: the Story of the Expedition of the Marquis de Rays. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1936, reprinted 1980.

4. Colonial

A. British New Guinea

 

  • Bevan, Theodore Francis. Toil, Travel and Discovery in British New Guinea. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1890.
  • Fort, G. Seymour. British New Guinea: Report on British New Guinea from Data and Notes by the Late Sir Peter Scratchley. Melbourne: J. Ferres, Government Printer, 1886.
  • . Chance or Design?: a Pioneer Looks Back. London: Hale, 1942.
  • Gordon, D. C. The Australian Frontier in New Guinea, 1870-1885. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.
  • Lyne, Charles E. New Guinea: an Account of the Establishment of the British Protectorate over the Southern Shores of New Guinea. London: Sampson, Low, 1885.
  • Thomson, James Park. British New Guinea. London: G. Philip & Son; Brisbane: A. Muir & Morcom, 1892.

B. German New Guinea

 

  • Firth, Stewart. New Guinea under the Germans. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1983.
  • German New Guinea: the Annual Reports; ed. and trans. Peter G. Sack and Dymphna Clark. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • German New Guinea: the Draft Annual Report for 1913-14; ed. and trans. Peter G. Sack and Dymphna Clark. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Rowley, Charles D. The Australians in German New Guinea 1914-1921. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1958.
  • Sack, Peter G. and B. Sack. The Land Laws of German New Guinea: a Collection of Documents. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1975.

C. Australian Colonial Rule

 

  • Buckley, Ken and Kristine Klugman. The Australian Presence in the Pacific: Burns Philp 1914-1946. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1983.
  • . The History of Burns Philp: the Australian Company in the South Pacific. Sydney: Burns, Philp & Co., 1981.
  • Bulbeck, Chilla. Australian Women in Papua New Guinea: Colonial Passages 1920-1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Connolly, Bob and Robin Anderson. First Contact: New Guinea Highlanders Encounter the Outside World. New York, Penguin, 1987.
  • Downs, Ian. The Australian Trusteeship: Papua New Guinea 1945-1975. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1980.
  • Essai, Brian. Papua and New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Fenbury, David M. Practice Without Policy: Genesis of Local Government in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University, 1978.
  • Griffin, James et al. Papua New Guinea: a Political History. Melbourne: Heinemann, 1979.
  • Hastings, Peter. New Guinea: Problems and Prospects. Melbourne: Cheshire for The Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1969; 2nd ed., 1973.
  • . Papua/New Guinea: Prospero’s Other Island. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1971.
  • Healy, A. M. Bulolo: a History of the Development of the Bulolo Region, New Guinea. Canberra: New Guinea Research Unit, Australian National University, 1967.
  • Hope, Penelope. Long Ago Is Far Away: Accounts of the Early Exploration and Settlement of the Papuan Gulf Area. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • Hudson, William James., ed. Australia and the Colonial Question at the United Nations. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1970.
  • New Guinea Empire: Australia’s Colonial Experience. Melbourne: Cassell, 1974.
  • Idriess, Ion Llewellyn. Gold-dust and Ashes: the Romantic Story of the New Guinea Goldfields. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1933; 20th ed., 1948.
  • Inglis, Amirah. “Not a White Woman Safe”: Sexual Anxiety and Politics in Port Moresby 1920-1934. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • Legge, John David. Australian Colonial Policy: a Survey of Native Administration and European Development in Papua. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1956.
  • Lett, Lewis. Knights Errant of Papua. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1935.
  • . Papua; its People and its PromisePast and Future. Melbourne, Cheshire, 1944.
  • . The Papuan Achievement. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press; London, Oxford University Press, 1942; 2nd ed., 1944.
  • . Papuan Gold: the Story of the Early Gold Seekers. Sydney: Angus & Roberston, 1943.
  • Lyng, Jens. Our New Possession (late German New Guinea) Melbourne: Melbourne Publishing Company, 1919.
  • MacKenzie, Seaforth Simpson. The Australians at Rabaul: the Capture and Administration of the German Possessions in the Southern Pacific. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1927; Brisbane: University of Queensland Press in association with the Australian War Memorial, 1987.
  • Mair, Lucy. Australia in New Guinea. London: Christophers, 1948; 2nd ed. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1973.
  • Murray, John Hubert Plunkett [Sir Hubert]. Papua; or British New Guinea. London: Fisher Unwin, 1912.
  • . Papua of To-day; or, an Australian Colony in the Making. London: P. S. King, 1925.
  • . The Scientific Aspect of the Pacification of Papua. Port Moresby, 1932.
  • , ed. Francis West. Selected Letters of Hubert Murray. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1970.
  • Nelson, Hank. Taim bilong Masta: the Australian Involvement with Papua New Guinea. Sydney: ABC Enterprises, 1982, 1990.
  • Oram, Nigel. Colonial Town to Melanesian City: 1884-1974. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1976.
  • Radford, Robin. Highlanders and Foreigners in the Upper Ramu: the Kainantu Area 1919-1942. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1987.
  • Ryan, John. The Hot Land: Focus on New Guinea. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1969.
  • Sinclair, James. Kiap: Australia’s Patrol Officers in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1981.
  • Stuart, Ian. Port Moresby, Yesterday and Today. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1970.
  • Willis, Ian. Lae, Village and City. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1974.
  • Wolfers, Edward P. Race Relations and Colonial Rule in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Australia and New Guinea Book Co., 1975.

5. Second World War

 

  • Dexter, David. The New Guinea Offensives. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1961.
  • Feldt, Eric. The Coast Watchers. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1946; Penguin, 1991.
  • Gailey, Harry A. Bougainville, 1943-1945: the Forgotten Campaign. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1991.
  • Hall, Timothy. New Guinea 1942-44. Sydney: Methuen, 1981.
  • Haugland, Vern. Letter from New Guinea. London: Hammond, 1944.
  • Johnston, George. War Diary 1942. Sydney: Collins, 1984.
  • Laffin, John. Return to Glory. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1956.
  • McCarthy, Dudley. South-west Pacific Area-First Year: Kokoda to Wau. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1959.
  • Mayo, Lida. Bloody Buna. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1974.
  • Bloody Buna: the Campaign that Halted the Japanese Invasion of Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1975.
  • Miller, John. Cartwheel: the Reduction of Rabaul. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1959.
  • Milner, Samuel. Victory in Papua. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1957.
  • Paull, Raymond. Retreat from Kokoda: the Australian Campaign in New Guinea 1942. London; Heinemann, 1958; Secker & Warburg, 1983.
  • Robinson, Neville K. Villagers at War: Some Papua New Guinean Experiences in World War 2. Canberra: Australian National University, 1979.
  • Ryan, Peter. Fear Drive My Feet. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1959; Ringwood, Victoria: Penguin, 1992.
  • Sheehan, Susan. A Missing Plane. New York: Putnams, 1986.
  • Steward, H. D. Recollections of a Regimental Medical Officer. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983.
  • Tanako, Kengoro. Operations of the Imperial Japanese Army in the Papua New Guinea Theater during World War II. Tokyo: Japan Papua New Guinea Goodwill Society, 1980.
  • Walker, Allan S. The Island Campaigns. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1957.
  • White, Osmar. Green Armour. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1945; reprinted Melbourne: Penguin, 1987.

6. Christian Missions and Missionaries

 

  • Abel, Russell W. Charles Abel of Kwato: Forty Years in Dark Papua. New York: F. H. Revell, 1934.
  • Ansoul, Richard. Beautiful Feet. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Baptist Missionary Society, 1982.
  • Barnes, Robert. Village Ministry Breakthrough: the Life and Work of Robert Varley Barnes in Papua New Guinea from 1963 to 1980. Glenroy, Victoria; M. Jackson, 1983.
  • Boseto, Leslie, ed. Glen Bays. I Have a Strong Belief: the Reverend Leslie Boseto’s Own Story of His Eight Years as the First Melanesian Moderator of the United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Rabaul: Unichurch Books; Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1983.
  • Braun, F. South of the Equator: a Brief History of the Lutheran Mission, Madang, New Guinea Territory. Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1937.
  • Bromilow, William E. Twenty Years among Primitive Papuans. London: Epworth, 1929; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1977.
  • Brown, George. A Brief Account of Methodist Missions in Australasia, Polynesia, and Melanesia: Their Past History, Present Conditions and Possibilities in the Future. Sydney: Methodist Missionary Society, 1904.
  • . George Brown, D. D.: Pioneer Missionary and Explorer: an Autobiography. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1908; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Chalmers, James. Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea, 1877-1894. London: Religious Tract Society, 1895.
  • . Pioneering in New Guinea. London, Religious Tract Society, 1887.
  • Chalmers, James and W. Wyatt Gill. Work and Adventure in New Guinea, 1877-1885. London: Religious Tract Society, 1895.
  • Chatterton, Percy. Day that I Have Loved: Percy Chatterton’s Papua. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1974.
  • Chignell, Arthur Kent. An Outpost in Papua. London: Smith and Elder, 1915.
  • . Twenty-one Years in Papua: a History of the English Church Mission in New Guinea 1891-1912. London: A. R. Mowbray, 1913.
  • Chittleborough, Anne. A Short History of the Anglican Church in Papua New Guinea. London and Sydney: New Guinea Mission, Australian Board of Missions, 1976.
  • Danks, Benjamin. A Brief History of the New Britain Mission. London: Australasian Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, 1901.
  • Deane, Wallace, ed. In Wild New Britain: the Story of Benjamin Danks, Pioneer Missionary, from his Diary. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1933.
  • Delbos, Georges. The Mustard Seed: from French Mission to Papuan Church 1885-1985. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1985.
  • Duggan, Stephen J. “Franciscan Ideals and New Guinea Realities: Australian Franciscans and the Sepik Mission, 1946/51”. Journal of Religious History, v. 17, no. 1, June 1992, pp. 77-100.
  • Dupeyrat, André. Papuan Conquest. Melbourne: Araluen, 1948.
  • Dupeyrat, André, trans. Erik de Mauny. Festive Papua. London, Staples, 1955.
  • Dupeyrat, André, trans. Erik and Denise de Mauny. Mitsinari: Twenty-one Years among the Papuans. London: Staples, 1954.
  • . Savage Papua: a Missionary among Cannibals. New York: Dutton, 1954.
  • Flierl, Johann, trans. M. Wiederaenders. Forty Years in New Guinea: Memoirs of the Senior Missionary John Flierl. (?) Iowa: Board of Foreign Missions of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and Other States, 1927.
  • Green, Judith. These were my Children. Adelaide: Landin Press, 1989.
  • Holmes, John Henry. By Canoe to Cannibal-land. London: Livingstone Press, 1923.
  • . In Primitive New Guinea: an Account of a Quarter of a Century Spent amongst the Primitive Ipi and Naamau Groups of Tribes of the Gulf of Papua. . . . London: Seeley, Service; New York: Putnam, 1924; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • . Way back in Papua. London: Allen & Unwin, 1926.
  • Huber, Mary Taylor. The Bishops’ Progress: a Historical Ethnography of Catholic Missionary Experience on the Sepik Frontier. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.
  • Keysser, Christian, trans. Alfred Allin and John Kuder. A People Reborn. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 1978.
  • King, J. W. G. Lawes of Savage Island and New Guinea. London: Religious Tract Society, 1909.
  • Langmore, Diane. Missionary Lives: Papua, 1874-1914. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989.
  • Tamate – a King: James Chalmers in New Guinea 1877-1901. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1974.
  • Lennox, Cuthbert. James Chalmers of New Guinea: Missionary Pioneer and Martyr. London: Andrew Melrose, 1902.
  • Linge, Hosea. A Offering Fit for a King: the Life and Work of the Rev. Hosea Linge. Rabaul: United Church, 1978.
  • Lovett, Richard. James Chalmers. London: Religious Tract Society, 1902.
  • . Tamate: the Life and Adventure of a Christian Hero. London: Religious Tract Society, 1904.
  • MacFarlane, Samuel. Among the Cannibals of New Guinea: being the Story of the New Guinea Mission of the London Missionary Society. London: London Missionary Society, 1888.
  • McKay, Ross. ”The War Years: Methodists in Papua 1942/ 1945″. Journal of Pacific History, v.27, no. 1, June 1992, pp. 20-43.
  • Martin, George Currie. The New Guinea Mission: being the Story of its Fields, its Pioneers, and its Progress. London: London Missionary Society, 1908.
  • Mennis, Mary. Hagen Saga: the Story of Father William Ross, First American Missionary to Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • Murray, Archibald Wright. Forty Years’ Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea, from 1835 to 1875. London: Nisbet, 1876.
  • Northcott, Cecil. Guinea Gold: the London Missionary Society at Work in the Territory of Papua. London: Livingstone Press, 1936.
  • O’Neill, Tim. And We, the People: Ten Years with the Primitive Tribes of New Guinea. New York: P. J. Kennedy, 1961; Vunapope: Catholic Mission Press, 1972.
  • Polynesian Missions in Melanesia: from Samoa, Cook Islands and Tonga to Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1982.
  • Prince, John and M. Prince. A Church is Born: a History of the Evangelical Church of Papua New Guinea. Preston, Victoria: Asia Pacific Christian Mission, 1991.
  • Robson, William. James Chalmers: Missionary and Explorer of Rarotonga and New Guinea. London: Partridge, 1903.
  • Saunders, Garry. Robert Brown of Papua. London: Michael Joseph, 1965.
  • Smith, Graham. Mendi Memories. Melbourne: Nelson, 1974.
  • Strong, Philip, ed. David Wetherell. The New Guinea Diaries of Philip Strong, 1936-1945. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1981.
  • Synge, Frances M. Albert Maclaren: Pioneer Missionary in New Guinea: a Memoir. London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1908.
  • Thompson, Ralph Wardlaw. My Trip in the “John Williams”. London: London Missionary Society, 1900.
  • Threlfall, Neville A. One Hundred Years in the Islands: the Methodist/United Church in the New Guinea Islands Region 1875-1975. Rabaul: the United Church, New Guinea Islands Region, 1975.
  • Tomkins, Dorothea and Brian Hughes. The Road from Gona. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1969.
  • Ure, David Eric. It Happened since 1871: Seventy Four Years of L. M. S. Achievement in New Guinea. Sydney: London Missionary Society, 1945.
  • Venard, Sister Mary. The History of the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart in Papua New Guinea: Missionary Beginnings, FDNSC. Port Moresby: Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, 1978.
  • Vicedom, Georg F. Church and People in New Guinea. London: World Christian Books, 1961.
  • Wagner, Herwig and Hermann Reiner, ed. The Lutheran Church in Papua New Guinea: the First Hundred Years 1886-1986. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House, 1986.
  • Wetherell, David F. Reluctant Mission: the Anglican Church in Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1977.
  • White, Gilbert. A Pioneer of Papua: being the Life of the Rev. Copland King, M. A., One of the Two First Missionaries of the New Guinea Mission. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1929.
  • . Round about Torres Strait: a Record of Australian Church Missions. London: Central Board of Missions, 1917.
  • Whiteman, Darrell L. Melanesians and Missionaries: an Ethnohistorical Study of Social and Religious Change in the Southwest Pacific. Pasadena, California: W. Carey Library, 1983.
  • Williams, Ronald G. The United Church in Papua, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Rabaul: Trinity Press, 1972.

7. Autobiography and Biography

 

  • Downs, Ian. The Last Mountain: a Life in Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1986.
  • Gore, Ralph Thomas. Justice Versus Sorcery. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1965.
  • Greenop, Frank S. Who Travels Alone. Sydney: K. G. Murray, 1944. [Biography of N. N. Miklukho-Maklai.]
  • Griffin, James, ed. Papua New Guinea Portraits: the Expatriate Experience. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Hahl, Albert, ed. and trans. Peter G. Sack and Dymphna Clark. Governor in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1980.
  • Hays, Terence E., ed. Ethnographic Presents: Pioneering Anthropologists in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Hernsheim, Eduard, ed. and trans. Peter G. Sack and Dymphna Clark. South Sea Merchant. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1983.
  • Inglis, Amirah. Karo: the Life and Fate of a Papuan. Canberra: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies in association with Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Joyce, Roger B. Sir William MacGregor. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1971.
  • Kiki, Albert Maori, Sir. Kiki: Ten Thousand Years in a Lifetime; a New Guinea Autobiography. Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1968.
  • Legg, Frank in collaboration with Toni Hurley. Once More on my Adventure. Sydney: Ure Smith, 1966. [Biography of Frank Hurley]
  • Lett, Lewis. Sir Hubert Murray of Papua. Sydney: Collins, 1949.
  • Ligeramaluoga, Osea, trans. by Ella Collins. An Account of the Life of Ligeramaluoga (Osea): an Autobiography. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1931.
  • McCarthy, John Keith. Patrol into Yesterday: My New Guinea Years. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1963; Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1964.
  • Matane, Paulias. My Childhood in New Guinea. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Miklukho-Maklai, Nikolai Nikolaevich, trans. from the Russian by C. L. Sentinella. Mikloucho-Maclay: New Guinea Diaries 1871-1883. Madang, Kristen Pres, 1975.
  • . comp. by D. Tumarkin. Travels to New Guinea; Diaries, Letters, Documents. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982. Mouton, Jean Baptiste Octave, ed. Peter Biskup. The New Guinea Memoirs of Jean Baptiste Mouton. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • Ongka, trans. Andrew Strathern. Ongka: a Self Account by a New Guinea Big Man. London: Duckworth, 1979.
  • Phillips, Anna. As the Catalina Flies: a Hungarian Girl Growing up in Bougainville. Springwood, New South Wales: Butterfly Books, 1993.
  • Putilov, Boris Nikolaevich, trans. G. A. Kozlov. Nikolai Miklouho-Maklai: Traveller, Scientist, and Humanist. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982.
  • Robson, Robert William. Queen Emma: the Samoan-American Girl Who Founded an Empire in 19th Century New Guinea. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1979.
  • Sinclair, James. The Outside Man: Jack Hides of Papua. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1969.
  • Somare, Michael Thomas [Sir Michael]. Sana: an Autobiography. Port Moresby: Niugini Press, 1975.
  • Turner, Ann. Views from Interviews: the Changing Role of Women in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Webster, Elsie May. The Moon Man: a Biography of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1984.
  • Wedega, Alice. Listen, My Country. Sydney: Pacific Publications, 1981.
  • West, Francis. Hubert Murray: the Australian Pro-Consul. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1968.
  • Wetherell, David F. and C. Carr-Gregg. Camilla: C. H. Wedgwood 1901-1955, a Life. Kensington, New South Wales: New South Wales University Press, 1990.

8. Description and Personal Narratives, to End of WWII

  • Abel, Charles W. Savage Life in New Guinea: the Papuan in Many Moods. London: London Missionary Society, 1902.
  • Bassett, Marnie. Letters from New Guinea, 1921. Melbourne: Hawthorn Press, 1969.
  • Beaver, Wilfred N. Unexplored New Guinea: a Record of the Travels, Adventures, and Experiences of a Resident Magistrate amongst the Head-hunting Savages and Cannibals of the Unexplored Interior of New Guinea. London: Seeley, Service, 1920; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Booth, Doris Regina. Mountains, Gold and Cannibals. Sydney: Cornstalk, 1929.
  • Bushell, Keith. Papuan Epic. London: Seeley, Service, 1935.
  • Champion, Ivan F. Across New Guinea from the Fly to the Sepik. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1966.
  • Cheesman, Evelyn. The Two Roads of Papua. London: Jarrolds, 1935.
  • Clune, Frank. Prowling through Papua. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1942.
  • . Somewhere in New Guinea: a Companion to Prowling through Papua. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1951.
  • Cooke, John. Working in Papua-New Guinea, 1931-1946. Mt Gravatt, Queensland: Lara Publications, 1983.
  • Crandall, Lee Saunders. Paradise Quest: a Naturalist’s Experiences in New Guinea. New York: Charles Scribner, 1931.
  • Crockett, Charis. The House in the Rain Forest. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942.
  • D’Albertis, Luigi. M. New Guinea: What I Did and What I Saw. London: Sampson, Low, 1880.
  • Demaitre, Edmund, trans. Henry Dawson Beaumont. New Guinea Gold: Cannibals and Gold-seekers in New Guinea. London: G. Bles, 1936.
  • Dromgold, George [photographic illustrations by James B. Shackelford]. Two Lugs on a Lugger. London: Hutchinson, 1938.
  • Grimshaw, Beatrice. Isles of Adventure: from Java to New Caledonia but Principally Papua. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931.
  • Hides, Jack Gordon. Beyond the Kubea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1974.
  • . Papuan Wonderland. London: Blackie, 1936.
  • . Savages in Serge. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1938; new ed. 1973.
  • . Through Wildest Papua. London: Blackie, 1935.
  • Humphries, W. R. Patrolling in Papua. London: Unwin, 1923.
  • Hurley, Frank. Pearls and Savages: Adventures in the Air, on Land and Sea in New Guinea. New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1924.
  • Keelan, Alice Jeannette. In the Land of Dohori. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1929.
  • Leahy, Michael J., ed. Douglas E. Jones. Explorations into Highland New Guinea 1930-1935. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991.
  • Leahy, Michael J. and Maurice Crain. The Land that Time Forgot: Adventures and Discoveries in New Guinea. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1937.
  • Lindt, John William. Picturesque New Guinea; with an Historical Introduction and Supplementary Chapters on the Manners and Customs of the Papuans; Accompanied with Fifty Full-page Autotype Illustrations from Negatives of Portraits from Life and Groups and Landscapes from Nature. London: Longmans, Green, 1887; facsimile edition, Port Moresby: Gordon and Gotch (P. N. G.), in association with the National Cultural Council of Papua New Guinea, 1980.
  • Lyng, Jens. Island Films: Reminiscences of “German New Guinea”. Sydney: Cornstalk Publishing, 1925.
  • MacKay, Kenneth. Across Papua: being an Account of a Voyage Round, and a March Across, the Territory of Papua, with the Royal Commission. London: Witherby, 1909.
  • McLeod, Helen. Cannibals Are Human: a District Officer’s Life in New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1961.
  • Marshall, Jock. The Men and Birds of Paradise: Journeys through Equatorial New Guinea. London: Heinemann, 1938.
  • Matches, Margaret. Savage Paradise. New York: Century, 1931.
  • Miklukho-Maklai, Nikolai Nikolaevich [trans. from Russian, comp. with commentary D. Tumarkin]. Travels to New Guinea: Diaries, Letters, Documents. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1982.
  • Miller, Leona. Cannibals and Orchids. New York: Sheridan House, 1941.
  • Monckton, Charles Arthur Whitmore. Last Days in New Guinea. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1922.
  • . New Guinea Recollections. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1934.
  • . Some Experiences of a New Guinea Resident Magistrate. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1921; Penguin, 1936.
  • Mytinger, Caroline. New Guinea Headhunt. New York: Macmillan, 1946.
  • Newton, Henry. In Far New Guinea: a Stirring Record of Work and Observation among the People of New Guinea, with a Description of their Manners, Customs, & Religions, &c. &c. &c. London: Seeley, Service, 1914.
  • O’Neill, Jack D., ed. by James Sinclair. Up from South: a Prospector in New Guinea 1931-1937. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • Overell, Lilian. A Woman’s Impressions of German New Guinea. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1923; 2nd ed., London: John Lane, 1929.
  • Pitcairn, W. D. Two Years among the Savages of New Guinea: with Introductory Notes on North Queensland. London: Ward & Downey, 1891.
  • Powell, Wilfred. Wanderings in a Wild Country; or, Three Years amongst the Cannibals of New Britain. London: Sampson, Low, 1883.
  • Pratt, Antwerp Edgar. Two years among New Guinea Cannibals: a Naturalist’s Sojourn among the Aborigines of Unexplored New Guinea by A. E. Pratt, with Notes and Observations by his Son Henry Pratt, and Appendices on the Scientific Results of the Expedition. London: Bell, 1906.
  • Pritchard, William Charles. Papua: a Handbook to its History, Inhabitants, Physical Features and Resources, etc. Compiled from Government Records and Other Sources . . . London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911.
  • Rawling, Cecil Godfrey. The Land of the New Guinea Pygmies: an Account of the Story of a Pioneer Journey of Exploration into the Heart of New Guinea. London: Seeley, Service, 1913.
  • Rhys, Lloyd. High Lights and Flights in New Guinea: being in the Main an Account of the Discovery and Development of the Morobe Goldfields. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1942.
  • Riley, E. Baxter. Among Papuan Headhunters: an Account of the Manners & Customs of the Old Fly River Headhunters, with a Description of the Secrets of the Initiation Ceremonies Divulged by Those Who Have Passsed through the Different Orders of the Craft. London: Seeley, Service, 1925.
  • Romilly, Hugh Hastings. From my Verandah in New Guinea: Sketches and Traditions. London: David Nutt, 1889.
  • . Letters from the Western Pacific and Mashonaland, 1878-1891. London: David Nutt, 1893.
  • . The Western Pacific and New Guinea: Notes on the Natives, Christian and Cannibal, with Some Account of the Old Labour Trade. London: J. Murray, 1886.
  • Saville, W. J. V. In Unknown New Guinea: a Record of Twenty-five Years of Personal Observation & Experience amongst the Interesting People of an Almost Unknown Part of this Vast Island & a Description of their Manners & Customs, Occupations in Peace & Methods of Warfare, their Secret Rites & Public Ceremonies. London: Seeley, Service; Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1926; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Silas, Ellis. A Primitive Arcadia: being the Impressions of an Artist in Papua. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1926.
  • Sinclair, James. Last Frontiers: the Explorations of Ivan Champion of Papua. Broadbeach Waters, Queensland: Pacific Publications (Queensland), 1988.
  • Specht, Jim and John Fields. Frank Hurley in Papua: Photographs of the 1920-1923 Expeditions. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates with the Australian Museum Trust, 1984.
  • Stirling, Matthew W. The Native People of New Guinea. Washington, D. C.: The Smithsonian Institute, 1943.
  • Strachan, John. Explorations and Adventures in New Guinea. London: Low, Marston, 1888.
  • Taylor, Merlin Moore. The Heart of Black Papua. New York: R. M. McBride, 1926.
  • . Where Cannibals Roam. London: G. Bles, 1924.
  • Vaughan, Berkeley. Doctor in Papua. Adelaide: Rigby, 1974.
  • Wallis, Arthur E. The Cruise of the Ellengowan. Sydney: New Century Press, 1924.
  • Williamson, Robert W. The Ways of the South Sea Savage: a Record of Travel & Observation amongst the Savages of the Solomon Islands & Primitive Coast & Mountain People of New Guinea. London: Seeley, Service, 1914.

Books about Papua New Guinea – Politics and Government (V)

1. General

  • Australian Institute of Political Science, ed. John Wilkes. New Guinea . . . Future Indefinite?: Papers Read at the 34th Summer School of the Institute. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968.
  • Ballard, John Addison, ed. Policy Making in a New State: Papua New Guinea, 1972-77. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1981.
  • The Barnett Report: a Summary of the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Aspects of the Timber Industry in Papua New Guinea. Hobart: Asia-Pacific Action Group, 1990.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray and Peter Lawrence, ed. Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change; Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1971.
  • Bettison, David George et al., ed. The Papua New Guinea Elections, 1964. Canberra: Australian National University, 1965.
  • Bonney, Norman. The Politics and Finance of Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Centre for Research on Federal Financial Relations, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Conyers, Diana. The Provincial Government Debate: Central Control Versus Local Participation in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1976.
  • Dwivedi, O. P. in collaboration with Nelson E. Paulias, ed. Ethics in Government: the Public Service of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Administrative College of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard et al., ed. The Politics of Dependence: Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1971.
  • Grosart, Ian, ed. A New Guinea Brief: Select Documents on Political Development of Papua and New Guinea. Sydney: Australian Institute of Political Science, 1967.
  • Hasluck, Paul Meernaa Caedwalla [Sir Paul]. Australia’s Task in Papua and New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1956.
  • . A Time for Building: Australian Administration in Papua and New Guinea 1951-1963. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Hegarty, David, ed. Electoral Politics in Papua New Guinea: Studies on the 1977 National Elections. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1983.
  • Jinks, Brian. New Guinea Government: an Introduction. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • May, Ronald J., ed. Micronationalist Movements in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1982.
  • Morauta, Louise. Beyond the Village: Local Politics in Madang, Papua New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1974.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. Life and Leadership in Melanesia. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Nelson, Hank. Papua New Guinea: Black Chaos or Black Unity? Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1972.
  • Pokawin, Stephen. “Papua New Guinea; Post Colonial Experiences of Australian Public Administration”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.51., no.2, June 1992, pp. 169-175.
  • Premdas, Ralph and Stephen Pokawin, ed. Decentralization: the Papua New Guinean Experiment; Waigani Seminar Papers 1978. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1979.
  • Standish, Bill. Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea: Early lessons from Chimbu. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Stephen, David. A History of Political Parties in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Lansdown Press, 1972.
  • Stone, David, ed. Prelude to Self-government. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University and University of Papua New Guinea, 1976.
  • Tanham, George K. and Eleanor S. Wainstein. ”Prepared for the Under Secretary for Defense Policy”. Papua New Guinea Today. Santa Monica, California: RAND, 1990.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. “The Long and Winding Road: Administrative Training in Post Colonial Papua New Guinea”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.52, no. 2, June 1992.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald and David W. Hegarty. The 1987 Election in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1987.
  • Ward, Marion W., ed. The Politics of Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Fourth Waigani Seminar . . . 1970. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1970.
  • White, Osmar. Parliament of a Thousand Tribes: Papua New Guinea, the Story of an Emerging Nation. London: Heinemann, 1965; rev. ed., Melbourne, Wren, 1972.
  • Woolford, Don. Papua New GuineaInitiation and Independence. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.

2. Armed Forces

 

  • Mench, Paul. The Role of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Canberra: Australian National University, 1975.
  • O’Neill, Robert J. The Army in Papua-New Guinea: Current Role and Implications for Independence. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1971.
  • Sinclair, James, comp. and ed. M. B. Pears. To Find a Path: the Life and Times of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment. Bathurst, New South Wales: Crawford House Press, 1990-92.

3. Bougainville Rebellion

 

  • Cass, Philip. “A Comparison of the Coverage of the Bougainville Civil War in The Australian and The Times of PNG”. Australian Journalism Review, v. 14, no. 2, July-Dec 1992, pp.79-90.
  • Elek, Andrew. “Papua New Guinea: Economic Recovery from the Bougainville Crisis and Prospects for the 1990s”. Economic Papers (Sydney) v. 11, no. 2, June 1992, pp. 13-31.
  • International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. “The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Statement Presented on Behalf of the Interim Government of the Republic of Bougainville on 14 August 1991 to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities . . .”. Contemporary Pacific, v.4, no. 2, Fall 1992, pp. 355-359.
  • Layton, Suzanna. “Fuzzy-Wuzzy Devils: Mass Media and the Bougainville Crisis”. Contemporary Pacific, v.4, no. 2, Fall 1992, pp. 292-323.
  • Mamak, Alexander et al. Bougainvillean Nationalism: Aspects of Unity and Discord. Christchurch: New Zealand, Department of Geography, University of Canterbury, 1974.
  • May, Ronald J. and Matthew Spriggs, ed. The Bougainville Crisis. Bathurst, New South Wales: Crawford House Press, 1990.
  • Pembshaw, D. H. “The Bougainville Crisis: Causes and Implications”. Australian Defence Force Journal, no. 97, Nov/Dec 1992, pp. 11-22.
  • Polomka, Peter, ed. Bougainville, Perspectives on a Crisis. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1990.
  • Stratigos, Christine and David Hyndman. “Mining, Resistance and Nationalism in the Republic of Bougainville.” Social Alternatives, v.12, no. 1, Apr 1993, pp. 55-62.
  • Wesley-Smith, Terence. “Development and Crisis in Bougainville: a Bibliographic Essay.” Contemporary Pacific, v.4. no. 2, Fall 1992, pp. 407-432.
  • Wesley-Smith, Terence and Eugene Ogan. “Copper, Class, and Crisis: Changing Relations of Production in Bougainville.” Contemporary Pacific, v.4, no. 2, Fall 1992, pp. 245-267.

4. Foreign Relations

  • Australia. Parliament. Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence. Report on a Visit to Papua New Guinea April 1986. Canberra: The Committee, 1986.
  • Australia. Parliament. Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. Australia’s Relations with Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1991.
  • Australia. Parliament. Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. Foreign Affairs Subcommittee. Reference: Australia’s Relations with Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1989-91.
  • Australian International Assistance Development Bureau. Australia’s Development Cooperation Program with Papua New Guinea: Supplementary Evidence to the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Inquiry into Australia’s Relations with Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Australian Institute of Political Science, ed. John Wilkes. Australia and New Guinea: Papers Read at the 24th Summer School of the Australian Institute of Political Science. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1958.
  • Boyce, Peter John and M. W. D. White, ed. The Torres Strait Treaty: a Symposium. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs with Australian National University Press, 1981.
  • Bullock, Katherine. Australia and Papua New Guinea: Foreign and Defence Relations since 1975. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1991.
  • Eiso, Dominic. Foreign Aid in Papua New Guinea: a Critical Perspective. Port Moresby: Kumah Enterprises, 1986.
  • Griffin, James, ed. A Foreign Policy for an Independent Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson in association with The Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1974.
  • Hegarty, David and Martin O’Hare. Defending the Torres Strait: the Likely Reactions of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia to Australia’s Initiatives. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1989.
  • Hudson, William James, ed. Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1971.
  • . Australia’s New Guinea Question. Melbourne: Nelson, with Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1980.
  • May, Ronald J. ed. Between Two Nations: the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea Border and West Papua Nationalism. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1986.
  • Poulgrain, Greg. “Sukarno and the International Quest for New Guinea.” Kabar Sebarang, no. 23, 1992, pp. 84-91.
  • Rummery, Arieane. “Australian Aid to Papua New Guinea.” Current Affairs Bulletin, v.69, no. 12, May 1993, pp. 13-20.
  • Van der Veur, P. W. Documents and Correspondence on New Guinea’s Boundaries. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1966.
  • . Search for New Guinea’s Boundaries from Torres Strait to the Pacific. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1966.
  • Wolfers, Edward P., ed. Australia’s Northern Neighbours: Independent or Dependent? Melbourne: Thomas Nelson, 1976.
  • , ed. and comp. Beyond the Border: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, South-east Asia and the South Pacific: Discussion and Documentation. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1988.

5. Law

  • Brown, R. J., ed. Fashion of Law in New Guinea; being an Account of the Past, Present and Developing System of Laws in New Guinea. Sydney: Butterworth, 1961.
  • Brunton, Brian D. and Duncan Colquhoun-Kerr. The Annotated Constitution of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Chalmers, Donald R. C. and Abdul Paliwala. An Introduction to the Law in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Law Book Co., 1977; 2nd ed., 1984.
  • Chalmers, Donald R. C. et al. Criminal Law and Practice of Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Law Book Co., 2nd ed. 1985.
  • De Vere, Ross et al, ed. Essays on the Constitution of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Tenth Independence Anniversary Advisory Committee, 1985.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • Fitzpatrick, Peter. Law and State in Papua New Guinea. London: Academic Press, 1980.
  • Goldring, John. The Constitution of Papua New Guinea: a Study in Legal Nationalism. Sydney: Law Book Co., 1978.
  • Jackson, C. F. Native Labour Law and Practice in Papua. Sydney: Law Book Company, 1924.
  • James, R. W. Land Law and Policy in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • James, R. W. and I. Fraser. Legal Issues in a Developing Society: 1990 Law Conference on “The Supreme Court in the Eighties”, Commemorating Sir Buri Kidu’s 10 Years in Office. Port Moresby: Faculty of Law, University of Papua New Guinea, 1992.
  • Jessep, Owen and John Luluaki. Principles of Family Law in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1985.
  • O’Regan, Robin Stanley. The Common Law in Papua and New Guinea. Sydney: Law Book Co., 1971; reprinted Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1983.
  • Papua New Guinea. The Laws of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, 1975- . Port Moresby: Government Printer, 1975-.
  • Rannels, Jackson and Eve Rannels. The Constitution and Organic Laws Cited in Papua New Guinea Judgments 1975-Early 1991. Port Moresby: Michael Somare Library, University of Papua New Guinea, 1991.
  • Roebuck, Derek et al. The Context of Contract in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Scaglion, Richard, ed. Customary Law in Papua New Guinea: a Melanesian View. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1983.
  • . Homicide Compensation in Papua New Guinea: Problems and Prospects. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1981.
  • Waigani Seminar, 1969. Land Tenure and Indigenous Group Enterprise in Melanesia: Legal and Social Implications. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1969.
  • Waigani Seminar, 1973. Law and Development in Melanesia. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1974.
  • Weisbrot, David et al., ed. Law and Social Change in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Butterworth, 1982.
  • Young, L. K. Outline of Law in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Law Book Co., 1971.

Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)

1. General

  • Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. Science in Emergent Countries. Sydney: ANZAAS, 1970; Search vol. 1 no. 5; special issue on 42nd Congress of ANZAAS, Port Moresby, 1970.
  • Morton, J. R., ed. The Role of Science and Technology in the Development of Papua New Guinea: the Policy Dimensions. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.

2. Biological Sciences

  • Archbold, Richard and A. L. Rand. New Guinea Expedition: Fly River Area, 1936-1937. New York: McBride, 1940; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Australian Unesco Committee for Man and the Biosphere. Report: Symposium on Ecological Effects of Increasing Human Activities on Tropical and Subtropical Forest Ecosystems, University of Papua New Guinea, 1975. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1976.
  • Gressitt, J. Linsey, ed. Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea. The Hague: Junk, 1982.
  • Lamb, Kenneth Percival and J. Linsey Gressitt, ed. Ecology and Conservation in Papua New Guinea; a Symposium held at the Wau Ecology Institute . . . 1975. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1976.
  • Paijmans, Kees, ed. New Guinea Vegetation. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with the Australian National University Press; Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1976.

3. Earth Sciences

  • Bleeker, Pieter. Soils of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with Australian National University Press, 1983.
  • Blong, Russell J. The Time of Darkness: Local Legends and Volcanic Reality in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Johnson, Robert Wallace and N. A. Threlfall. Volcano Town: the 1937-1943 Eruptions at Rabaul. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Knight, C. L., ed. Economic Geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1975-76.
  • Löffler, Ernst. Geomorphology of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization with Australian National University Press, 1977.
  • McAlpine, John Roger, et al. Climate of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in association with Australian National University Press, 1983.
  • Taylor, G. A. M. The 1951 Eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua. Canberra: Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, 1958.

4. Human Geography

  • Brookfield, Harold C., ed. The Pacific in Transition: Geographical Perspectives on Adaptation and Change. London: Edward Arnold; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. with D. Hart. Melanesia: a Geographical Interpretation of an Island World. London: Methuen, 1971.
  • Clarke, William C. Place and People: an Ecology of a New Guinean Community. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.
  • Howlett, Diana Rosemary. Papua New Guinea: Geography and Change. Melbourne: Nelson, rev. ed. 1973.
  • Ward, R. Gerard and David A. M. Lea, ed. An Atlas of Papua and New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Geography, University of Papua and New Guinea, 1970.

5. Medicine and Public Health

  • Burton-Bradley, Sir Burton G. Stone Age Crisis: A Psychiatric Appraisal. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Press, 1973.
  • . A History of Medicine in Papua New Guinea: Vignettes of an Earlier Period. Kingsgrove, New South Wales: Australasian Medical Publishing, 1990.
  • Burton-Bradley, Sir Burton G. and Otto Billig. The Painted Message. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1978.
  • Denoon, Donald and Roy MacLeod, ed. Health and Healing in Tropical Australia and Papua New Guinea. Townsville, Queensland: James Cook University, 1991.
  • Denoon, Donald with Kathleen Dugan and Leslie Marshall. Public Health in Papua New Guinea: Medical Possibility and Social Constraint, 1884-1984. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Ewers, William H. and W. T. Jeffrey. Parasites of Man in Niugini. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • Farquhar, Judith and D. Carleton Gajdusek. Kuru: Early Letters and Field-notes from the Collection of D. Carleton Gajdusek. New York: Raven Press, 1981.
  • Frankel, Stephen and Gilbert Lewis. A Continuing Trial of Treatment: Medical Pluralism in Papua New Guinea. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer, 1989.
  • Gillett, Joy E. The Health of Women in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1990.
  • Godard, Michael. “Bedlam in Paradise: a Critical History of Psychiatry in Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Pacific History, v.27, no. 1, June 1992, pp. 55-72.
  • Hornabrook, Richard W., ed. Essays on Kuru. Faringdon: E. W. Classey for Institute of Human Biology, 1976.
  • Jeffries, Dougal J. From Kaukau to Coke: a Study of Rural and Urban Food Habits in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University for UNESCO, 1979.
  • Kettle, Ellen S. That They Might Live. Sydney:P. F. Leonard, 1979.
  • Malcolm, L. A. Growth and Development in New Guinea: A Study of the Bundi People of the Madang District. Madang: Institute of Human Biology, 1970.
  • Papua New Guinea National Health Plan, 1986-1990. Port Moresby: Department of Health, 1986.
  • Reilly, Quentin. The Decentralisation of Health Services in Papua New Guinea: the Problem, the Method and the Results. Port Moresby: Department of Health, 1985.
  • Sinnett, Peter F. The People of Murapin. Faringdon: E. W. Classey for Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1975.
  • Smith, D. E. and Michael J. Alpers, ed. Cigarette Smoking in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute o Medical Research, 1984.
  • . Village Water Supplies in Papua New Guinea. Goroka: Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, 1985.

6. Natural History: Animals and Plants

  • Beehler, Bruce McP. et al. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • Coates, Brian J. Birds in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Robert Brown, 1977.
  • . The Birds of Papua New Guinea, including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville. Alderley, Queensland: Dove Publications, 1985-1990.
  • Cooper, William T. and Joseph M. Forshaw. The Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. Sydney: Collins, 1977.
  • D’Abrera, Bernard. Butterflies of the Australian Region. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1977.
  • Gilliard, E. Thomas. Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969.
  • Goode, John. Freshwater Tortoises of Australia and New Guinea (in the Family Chelidae) Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1967.
  • Gressitt, J. Linsey and Richard W. Hornabrook. Handbook of Common New Guinea Beetles. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1977.
  • Hinton, Alan. Guide to Shells of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Robert Brown, 1979.
  • Lindgren, Eric. Wildlife in New Guinea. Sydney: Golden Press; London: Muller, 1975.
  • Majnep, lan Saem and Ralph Bulmer, illustrations by Christopher Healey. Birds of my Kalam Country. Auckland: Auckland University Press; London: London University Press, 1977.
  • Menzies, James I. Handbook of Common New Guinea Frogs. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1976.
  • . H. Handbook of New Guinea Rodents. Wau: Wau Ecology Institute, 1979.
  • Millar, Andrée et al.; photographs by Roy and Margaret Mackay. Orchids of Papua New Guinea: an Introduction. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Munro, Ian Stafford Ross. The Fishes of New Guinea. Port Moresby: Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, 1967.
  • Rand, Austin L. and E. Thomas Gilliard. Handbook of New Guinea Birds. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967.
  • Rutgers, A., illustrations John Gould. Birds of New Guinea. London: Methuen, 1970.
  • Whitaker, Rom and Zai Whitaker. Reptiles of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, 1982.

Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)

1. Anthropology, Social and Cultural

  • Abbi, Behari L. Traditional Groupings and Modern Associations: a Study of Changing Local Groups in Papua & New Guinea. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.
  • Allen, Michael R. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1967.
  • Armstrong, Wallace Edwin. Rossel Island: an Ethnological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.
  • Aufenanger, Heinrich. The Great Inheritance, Northeast New Guinea; a Collection of Anthropological Data. St. Augustin: Anthropos Institute, 1972.
  • The Passing Scene in North-east New Guinea. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1972.
  • Barth, Fredrik. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of New Guinea. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Bateson, Gregory. Naven: a Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe from Three Points of View. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2nd ed. 1958.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. Changing Melanesia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1964; reprinted, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray. Excess and Restraint: Social Control among a New Guinea Mountain People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Blackwood, Beatrice. Both Sides of Buka Passage: an Ethnographic Study of Social, Sexual, and Economic Questions in the North-western Solomon Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • from published articles and unpublished field-notes by Christopher Robert Hallpike. The Kukukuku of the Upper Watut. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum, 1978.
  • Böhm, Karl. The Life of Some Island People of New Guinea: a Missionary’s Observations of the Volcanic Islands of Manam, Boesa, Biem, and Ubrub. Berlin: D. Reimer, 1983.
  • Brandewie, Ernest. Contrast and Context in New Guinea Culture: the Case of the Mbowamb of the Central Highlands. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1981.
  • Brennan, Paul W., ed.. Exploring Enga Culture: Studies in Missionary Anthropology; Second Anthropological Conference of the New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970. [Papua New Guinea]: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. and Paula Brown. Struggle for Land: Agriculture and Group Territories among the Chimbu of the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1963.
  • Brown, Paula. The Chimbu: a Study of Change in the New Guinea Highlands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1972; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
  • Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  • Brown, Paula and Georgeda Buchbinder, ed. Man and Woman in the New Guinea Highlands. Washington, D. C.: American Anthropological Association, 1976.
  • Brunton, Ronald. The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Tangu Traditions: a Study of the Way of Life, Mythology and Developing Experience of a New Guinea People. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
  • Carrier, James G., ed. History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Carrier, James and Achshah H. Carrier. Structure and Process in a Melanesian Society: Ponam’s Progress in the Twentieth Century. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • Chowning, Ann. An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. 2nd ed., Menlo Park, California: Cummings Publishing Company, 1977.
  • Clark, Jeffrey. ”Pearlshell Symbolism in Highlands Papua New Guinea, Particular Reference to the Wiru People of Southern Highlands Province.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1991, pp. 309-339.
  • Clay, Brenda Johnson. Mandak Realities: Person and Power in Central New Ireland. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  • Pinkindu: Maternal Nurture, Paternal Substance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891.
  • Conton, Leslie. Women’s Roles in a Man’s World: Appearance and Reality in a New Guinea Lowland Village. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1977.
  • Cook, Edwin A. and Denise O’Brien. Blood and Semen: Kinship Systems of Highland New Guinea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980.
  • Cranstone, B. A. L. Melanesia: a Short Ethnography. London: British Museum, 1961.
  • Du Toit, Brian M. Akuna: a New Guinea Village Community. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1975.
  • Elkin, Adolphus Peter. Social Anthropology in Melanesia: a Review of Research. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard, ed. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • In the Midst of Life: Affect and Ideation in the World of the Tolai. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Matupit: Land, Politics, and Change among the Tolai of New Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1969.
  • Ernst, Thomas M. “Onabasulu Male Homosexuality: Cosmology, Affect and Prescribed Male Homosexual Activity among the Onabasulu of the Great Papuan Plateau.” Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 1-11.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl and Deborah Gewertz. Cultural Alternatives and a Feminist Anthropology: an Analysis of Culturally Constructed Gender Interests in Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Feil, Daryl Keith. Ways of Exchange: the Enga Tee of Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1984.
  • The Evolution of Highland Papua New Guinea Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Fitz-Patrick, David G. and John Kimbuna. Bundi: the Culture of a Papua New Guinea People. Nerang, Queensland: Ryebuck Publications, 1983.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Sorcerers of Dobu: the Social Anthropology of the Dobu Islanders of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge, 1932; rev. ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
  • Foster, Robert. “Commoditization and the Emergence of ‘Kastam’ as a Cultural Category: a New Ireland Case in Comparative Perspective.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1992, pp. 284-294.
  • Gelber, Marilyn G. Gender and Society in the New Guinea Highlands: an Anthropological Perspective on Antagonism towards Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986.
  • Gell, Alfred. The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda Society, Language and Ritual. London: Athlone Press, 1975.
  • Gewertz, Deborah B. Sepik River Societies: a Historical Ethnography of the Chambri and their Neighbors. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Gewertz, Deborah and Edward Schieffelin, ed. History and Ethnohistory in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Glasse, Robert M. Huli of Papua: a Cognatic Descent System. Paris: Mouton, 1968.
  • Glasse, Robert M. and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Pigs, Pearlshells and Women; Marriage in the New Guinea Highlands. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  • Godelier, Maurice, trans. Rupert Swyer. The Making of Great Men: Male Domination and Power among the New Guinea Baruya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Godelier, Maurice and Marilyn Strathern. Big Men and Great Men: Personifications of Power in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown. London: Methuen, 1901.
  • Hallpike, Christopher Robert. Bloodshed and Vengeance in the Papuan Mountains: the Generation of Conflict in Tauade Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Harrison, Simon. Stealing People’s Names: History and Politics in a Sepik River Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Hau’ofa, Epeli. Mekeo: Inequality and Ambivalence in a Village Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1981.
  • Healey, Christopher James. Maring Hunters and Traders: Production and Exchange in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Pioneers of the Mountain Forest: Settlement and Land Redistribution among the Kundagai Maring of the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
  • Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
  • The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987.
  • Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Hiatt, Lester Richard and Chandra Jayawardena, eds. Anthropology in Oceania: Essays Presented to lan Hogbin. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. Kinship and Marriage in a New Guinea Village. London: Athlone Press, 1963.
  • The Leaders and the Led: Social Control in Wogeo, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1978.
  • Social Change: Josiah Mason Lectures Delivered at the University of Birmingham. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1958, reprinted 1970.
  • Transformation Scene: the Changing Culture of a New Guinea Village. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian and Peter Lawrence. Studies in New Guinea Land Tenure. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1967.
  • Hutchins, Edwin Lee. Culture and Interference: a Trobriand Case Study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • Jarvie, Ian C. The Revolution in Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964; corrected reprint 1967.
  • Jenness, Diamond and A. Ballantyne. The Northern D’Entrecasteux. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1920.
  • Jolly, Margaret and Martha Mcintyre, ed. Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Josephides, Lisette. The Production of Inequality: Gender and Exchange among the Kewa. London: Tavistock, 1985.
  • Kahn, Miriam. Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the Expression of Gender in a Melanesian Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Kasprus, Aloys. The Tribes of the Middle Ramu and the Upper Keram Rivers (North-east New Guinea) St Augustin: Anthropos-Institut, 1973.
  • Kelly, Raymond Case. Etoro Social Structure: a Study in Structural Contradiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
  • Knauft, Bruce M. Good Company and Violence: Sorcery and Social Action in a Lowland New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • South Coast New Guinea Cultures: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Koch, Klaus Friedrich. War and Peace in Jalémó: the Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea: a Nature-born Instance of Rousseau’s Ideal Community. London: Macmillan, 1927; New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.
  • Langness, Lewis L. and Weschler, John C., ed. Melanesia; Readings on a Culture Area. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1971.
  • Lawrence, Peter. The Garia: an Ethnography of a Traditional Cosmic System in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
  • Land Tenure among the Garia: the Traditional System of a New Guinea People. Canberra: Australian National University, 1955.
  • Leach, Jerry W. and Edmund Leach, ed. The Kula: New Perspectives on Massim Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Lederman, Rena. What Gifts Engender: Social Relations and Politics in Mendi, Highland Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: an Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Knowledge of Illness in a Sepik Society: a Study of the Gnau, New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1975.
  • Lidz, Theodore et al. Oedipus in the Stone Age: a Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press, 1989.
  • Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy. The Mundugumor: from the Field Notes of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
  • MacKenzie, Maureen Anne. Androgynous Objects: String Bags and Gender in Central New Guinea. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • McSwain, Romola. The Past and Future People: Tradition and Change on a New Guinea Island. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men for Old: a Study of Cultural Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1961.
  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922.
  • Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1926.
  • Norbert Guterman. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967.
  • ed. by Michael W. Young. The Ethnography of Malinowski: the Trobriand Islands 1915-18. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
  • Magic, Science and Religion, and Other Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • Sex and Repression in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927; New York: Humanities Press, 1951.
  • Sex, Culture and Myth. London: Hart-Davis, 1963.
  • The Sexual Life of Savages in North-western Melanesia: an Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London: Routledge, 1929; 3rd ed., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1932.
  • Mawe, Theodore. Mendi Culture and Tradition: a Recent Survey. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1985.
  • Mead, Margaret. Growing up in New Guinea: a Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow, 1930; London: Routledge, 1931; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1942, 1965, 1981.
  • The Mountain Arapesh. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1938-45; reprinted Garden City, New York: Natural History Press, 1968-71.
  • New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation, Manus, 1928-53. New York: William Morrow,; London, Gollancz: 1956; 2nd ed., New York: William Morrow, 1966.
  • Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1935.
  • Meggitt, Mervyn John. Blood is their Argument: Warfare among the Mae Enga Tribesmen of the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1977.
  • The Lineage System of the Mae-Enga of New Guinea. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.
  • Studies in Enga History. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1974.
  • Mimica, Jadran. “The Incest Passions: an Outline of the Logic of Iqwaye Social Organization.” Part 1: Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 34-58; Part 2: Oceania, v.62, no. 2, Dec 1991, pp. 81-113.
  • Mitchell, William E., ed. Clowning as Critical Practice: Performance Humor in the South Pacific. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
  • Morren, George E. B. The Miyanmin: Human Ecology of a Papua New Guinea Society. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Mosko, Mark S. Quadripartite Structures: Categories, Relations and Homologies in Bush Mekeo Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Munn, Nancy D. The Fame of Gawa: a Symbolic Study of Value Transformation in a Massim (Papua New Guinea) Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976; Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1992.
  • Neumann, Klaus. “Tradition and Identity in Papua New Guinea: Some Observations regarding Tami and Tolai.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 295-316.
  • Newman, Philip Lee. Knowing the Gururumba. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.
  • Oliver, Douglas. A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1955.
  • Studies in the Anthropology of Bougainville, Solomon Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 1949.
  • Otto, Tom. “The Ways of ‘Kastam’: Tradition as Category and Practice in a Manus Village.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 264-283.
  • Pataki-Schweizer, K. J. A New Guinea Landscape: Community, Space and Time in the Eastern Highlands. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.
  • Powdermaker, Louise [Hortense]. Life in Lesu: the Study of a Melanesian Society in New Ireland. London: Williams and Norgate, 1933; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968; new ed. 1984.
  • Read, Kenneth E. The High Valley. New York: Scribner, 1965; London: Allen and Unwin, 1966.
  • Return to the High Valley: Coming Full Circle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Reay, Marie. The Kuma: Freedom and Conformity in the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1959.
  • Robbins, Sterling. Auyuna: Those Who Held onto Home. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Warfare, Marriage and the Distribution of Goods in Auyana. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Mead’s Other Manus: Phenomenology of the Encounter. South Hadley, Massachusetts: Bergin and Garvey, 1985.
  • Rubel, Paula G. and Abraham Rosman. Your Own Pigs You May Not Eat: a Comparative Study of New Guinea Societies. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1977.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. and Robert Crittenden, ed. Like People You See in a Dream: First Contact in Six Papuan Societies. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1991.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. “Kastom, ‘custom’, and culture: conspicuous culture and culture constructs.” Anthropological Forum, v.6, no.4, 1993, pp. 515-540.
  • Schwimmer, Erik. Exchange in the Social Structure of the Orokaiva: Traditional and Emergent Ideologies in the Northern District of Papua. London: Hurst; Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Seligman, Charles Gabriel. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910.
  • Shaw, R. Daniel. Kinship Studies in Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • Sorenson, E. Richard. The Edge of the Forest: Childhood and Change in a New Guinea Protoagricultural Society. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.
  • Spiro, Melford E. Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Stephen, Michele, ed. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press with Research Centre for South-west Pacific Studies, Latrobe University, 1987.
  • Strathern, Andrew A. Landmarks: Reflections on Anthropology. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.
  • A Line of Power. London: Tavistock, 1984.
  • One Father, One Blood: Descent and Group Structure among the Melpa People. Canberra: Australian National University Press; London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.
  • The Rope of Moka: Big-men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • Inequality in New Guinea Highlands Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Strathern, Marilyn. The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
  • . Partial Connections. Savage, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.
  • Women in Between: Female Roles in a Male World: Mount Hagen, New Guinea. London: Seminar Press, 1972.
  • , ed. Dealing with Inequality: Analysing Gender Relations in Melanesia and Beyond; Essays by Members of the 1983/ 1984 Anthropological Research Group at the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Swadling, Pamela, ed. People of the West Sepik Coast. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1979.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The llahita Arapesh: Dimensions of Unity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • Uberoi, J. P. Singh. Politics of the Kula-ring: an Analysis of the Findings of Bronislaw Malinowski. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1962.
  • Valentine, Charles A. Masks and Men in a Melanesian Society: the Valuku or Tubuan of the Lakalai of New Britain. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1961.
  • Vicedom, Georg F. and Herbert Tischner, trans. by Helen M. Groger-Wurm. The Mbowamb: the Culture of the Mount Hagen Tribes in East Central New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1983.
  • Waddell, E. The Mound Builders: Agricultural Practices, Environment, and Society in the Central Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Wagner, Roy. Asiwinarong: Ethos, Image, and Social Power among the Usen Barok of New Ireland. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • . The Curse of Souw: Principles of Daribi Clan Definition and Alliance in New Guinea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
  • Watson, James B. Tairora Culture: Contingency and Pragmatism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983.
  • , ed. New Guinea: the Central Highlands. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1964.
  • Weiner, Annette. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Quensland Press, 1977.
  • Weiner, James F. The Empty Place; Poetry, Space, and Being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. Mountain Papuans. Historical and Comparative Perspectives from New Guinea Fringe Highlands Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.
  • Westerman, Ted. The Mountain People: Social Institutions of the Laiapu Enga. Wapenamanda: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1968.
  • Whiteman, Darrell L. An Introduction to Melanesian Cultures: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • Whiting, John Wesley Mayhew. Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and Learning in a New Guinea Tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press for Institute of Human Relations, 1941; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Williams, Francis Edgar. Drama of Orokolo: Social and Ceremonial Life of the Elema. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
  • . Orokaiva Magic. London: Oxford University Press, 1928; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1969.
  • . Orokaiva Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1982.
  • . Papuans of the Trans-Fly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936; reprinted by arrangement with the Administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1969.
  • , ed. Erik Schwimmer. ”The Vailala Madness” and Other Essays. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.
  • Williamson, Robert Wood. The Mafulu: Mountain People of British New Guinea. London: Macmillan, 1912.
  • Young, Michael. Fighting with Food: Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • . Magicians of Manumanu: Living Myth in Kalauna. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

2. Anthropology, Economic

 

  • Bell, Francis Lancelot Sutherland. Primitive Melanesian Economy: an Analysis of the Economic System of the Tanga of New Ireland. Sydney: Australian National Research Council, 1953.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. In Search of Wealth: a Study of the Emergence of Commercial Operations in the Melanesian Society of Southeastern Papua. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1955.
  • Carrier, James G. and Achshah H. Carrier. Wage, Trade, and Exchange in Melanesia: a Manus Society in the Modern State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
  • Epstein, Trude Scarlett. Capitalism, Primitive and Modern: Some Aspects of Tolai Economic Growth. Canberra: Australian National University, 1968.
  • . Urban Food Marketing and Third World Rural Development: the Structure of Producer-Seller Markets. London: Croom Helm, 1982.
  • Gitlow, Abraham L. Economics of the Mount Hagen Tribes, New Guinea. New York: Augustin, 1947; reprinted Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.
  • Harding, Thomas G. Kunai Men: Horticultural Systems of a Papua New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • . Voyagers of the Vitiaz Strait: a Study of a New Guinea Trade System. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men of Papua: a Study in Culture Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.
  • Mitchell, Donald Dean. Land and Agriculture in Nagovisi, Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1976.
  • Newton, Janice. Orokaiva Production and Change. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Ohtsuka, Ryaturo. Oriomo Papuans: Ecology of Sago-eaters in Lowland Papua. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1983.
  • Salisbury, Richard F. From Stone to Steel: Economic Consequences of a Technological Change in New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1962.
  • . Vunamami: Economic Transformation in a Traditional Society. Berkeley: University of California Press; Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1970.
  • Sexton, Lorraine. Mothers of Money, Daughters of Coffee; the Wok Meri Movement. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.

3. Demography

  • Bakker, M. L. Fertility in Papua New Guinea: a Study of Levels, Patterns and Change Based on Census Data. Port Moresby: National Statistical Office, 1986.
  • . The Mortality Situation in Papua New Guinea: Levels, Differentials, Patterns and Trends. Port Moresby: National Statistical Office, 1986.
  • McMurray, Christine. Recent Demography of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Population of Papua New Guinea. New York: United Nations; Noumea: South Pacific Commission, 1982.
  • Skeldon, Robin, ed. The Demography of Papua New Guinea: Analyses from the 1971 Census. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.

4. Education

  • Apelis, Ephraim T. Factors Affecting Standards in Community Schools: a New Ireland Case Study. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Austin, Anthony Russell. Technical Training and Development in Papua 1894-1941. Canberra: Australian National University, 1977.
  • Baker, Leigh R. Development of University Libraries in Papua New Guinea. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1981.
  • Brammall, John and Ronald J. May, ed. Education in Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Eighth Waigani Seminar. . . 1974. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1975.
  • Bray, Mark. Educational Planning in a Decentralised System: the Papua New Guinea Experience. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press; Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1984.
  • Bray, Mark and Peter Smith, ed. Education and Social Stratification in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1985.
  • Carrier, James G. Education and Society in a Manus Village. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Commission for Higher Education. Higher Education Plan: a Strategy for Rationalisation, 1986-1990. Port Moresby: The Commission, 1986.
  • Currie, Sir George et al. Report of the Commission on Higher Education in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: The Commission, 1964.
  • Duggan, Stephen J. ” ‘I Want the Natives to Progress’: Education and Economic Development in the Sepik (Papua New Guinea), 1946/1960.” History of Education Review, v.21, no. 1, 1992, pp. 29-46.
  • Groves, William Charles. Native Education and Culture-contact in New Guinea …. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1936; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1977.
  • Growth of Education Since Independence, 1975-1985. Port Moresby: Department of Education, 1985.
  • Hecht, Susan. Muruk and the Cross: Missions and Schools in the Southern Highlands. Port Moresby: Educational Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1981.
  • Howie-Willis, lan. A Thousand Graduates: Conflict in University Development in Papua New Guinea, 1961-1976. Canberra: Australian National University, 1980.
  • Meek, V. Lynn. The University of Papua New Guinea: a Case Study in the Sociology of Higher Education. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1982.
  • Smith, Peter. Education and Colonial Control in Papua New Guinea: a Documentary History. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1987.
  • Swatridge, Colin. Delivering the Goods. Education as Cargo in Papua New Guinea. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986.
  • Thomas, Edmund Barrington, ed. Papua New Guinea Education. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • Weeks, Sheldon G., ed. The Education of the Papua New Guinea Child. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1980.
  • . The Story of my Education: Autobiographies of Schooling in Papua. Port Moresby: Education Research Unit, University of Papua New Guinea, 1977.

5. Language and Linguistics

  • Capell, Arthur. The Linguistic Position of South-eastern Papua. Sydney: Medical Publishing Company, 1943.
  • . A Survey of New Guinea Languages. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1969.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesian Languages: a Linguistic Survey of the Groups of Dialects and Languages Spread Over the Islands of Melanesia, Comprising their Comparative Grammar, Numerals, Vocabularies, and Phonology, and the Grammars of Some Thirty-five Languages, Preceded by a General Introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895; reprinted Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1974.
  • Dutton, Tom. Police Motu: Iena Sivarai (Its Story) Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1985.
  • , ed. Studies in Languages of Central and South-East Papua. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975.
  • Dutton, Tom and C. L. Voorhoeve. Beginning Hiri Motu. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1974.
  • Dutton, Tom in collaboration with Dicks Thomas. A New Course in Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin) Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Dutton, Tom et al., ed. The Language Game: Papers in Memory of Donald C. Laycock. Canberra: Department of Linguistics. Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1992.
  • Foley, William A. The Papuan Languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Franklin, Karl J., ed. The Linguistic Situation in the Gulf District and Adjacent Areas, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1973.
  • . Syntax and Semantics in Papua New Guinea Languages. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1981.
  • Goldman, Laurence. Talk Never Dies: the Language of Huli Disputes. London: Tavistock, 1983.
  • Healey, Alan. Language Learner’s Field Guide. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1975.
  • Laycock, Donald C. Sepik Languages: Checklist and Preliminary Classification. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1973.
  • McElhanon, Kenneth A. A Linguistic Field Guide to the Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1984.
  • McKaughan, Howard, ed. The Languages of the Eastern Family of the East New Guinea Highland Stock. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973.
  • Mihalic, Francis. Introduction to New Guinea Pidgin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • . The Jacaranda Dictionary and Grammar of Melanesian Pidgin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1971.
  • Mühlhauser, Peter. Growth and Structure of the Lexicon of New Guinea Pidgin. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1984.
  • Murphy, John J. The Book of Pidgin English (Neo-Melanesian) Brisbane: W. R. Smith and Paterson, rev. ed., 1973; rev. ed, Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Ray, Sidney H. A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Ross, Malcolm. Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Schuhmacher, W. Wilfried et al. Pacific Rim: Austronesian and Papuan Linguistic History. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1992.
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 8: Linguistics in Oceania. The Hague: Mouton, 1971.
  • Sociolinguistic Surveys of Sepik Languages. Ukarumpa, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1981.
  • Steinbauer, Friedrich. Concise dictionary of New Guinea Pidgin (Neo-Melanesian), with Translations in English and German. Madang, Kristen Pres, 1969.
  • Studies in Languages of the Ok Family. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe. Papuan Languages of Oceania. The Hague: Mouton, 1973; Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1982.
  • . The Linguistic Situation in the Highlands District of Papua and New Guinea. Canberra, Government Printer, 1966.
  • . New Guinea and the Neighboring Areas: a Sociolinguistic Laboratory. The Hague: Mouton, 1979.
  • , ed. New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975-77.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe and Peter Mühlhauser, ed. Handbook of Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin) Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe et al. Language Atlas of the Pacific Area: Part I, New Guinea Area, Oceania, Australia. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities with Japan Academy, 1981.
  • Z’graggen, John A. The Languages of the Madang District, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1975.

6. Human Biology

 

  • Ekman, Paul. The Face of Man: Expressions of Universal Emotion in a New Guinea Village. New York: Garland STPM Press, 1980.
  • Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott. Patterns of Human Variation: the Ethnography, Genetics and Phenetics of Bougainville Islanders. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975.
  • Howells, William. The Pacific Islanders. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.
  • Littlewood, Robert A. Physical Anthropology of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Pietrusewsky, Michael. Prehistoric Human Skeletal Remains from Papua New Guinea and the Marquesas. Honolulu: Social Sciences and Linguistics Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1976.
  • Swindler, Daris R. A Racial Study of the West Nakanai. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1962.

7. Religion

 

  • Brennan, Paul W. Let Sleeping Snakes Lie: a Study of Central Enga Traditional Religious Beliefs and Ritual. Adelaide: Australian Association for the Study of Religions, 1977.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Manus Religion: an Ethnological Study of the Manus Natives of the Admiralty Islands. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1935.
  • Gibbs, Philip. Ipili Religion, Past and Present: an Account of the Traditional Religion of the People of the Porgera and Paiela Valleys of Papua New Guinea and How It has Changed with the Coming of the European and Christianity. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1975.
  • Habel, Norman C., ed. Flowers, Plumes and Piglets: Phenomena of Melanesian Religion. Bedford Park, South Australia: Australian Association for the Study of Religions, 1979.
  • Herdt, Gilbert and Michele Stephen, ed. The Religious Imagination in New Guinea. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1970.
  • Lawrence, Peter and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Gods, Ghosts and Men in Melanesia: Some Religions of Australian New Guinea and the New Hebrides. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • McGregor, Donald E., revised Oswald G. Fountain. The Fish and the Cross. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1982.
  • Mantovani, Ennio. An Introduction to Melanesian Religions: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • May, John D’Arcy, ed. Living Theology in Melanesia: a Reader. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1985.
  • Meigs, Anna S. Food, Sex and Pollution: a New Guinea Religion. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1984.
  • Parratt, John. Papuan Belief and Ritual. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.
  • Schwarz, Brian. An Introduction to Ministry in Melanesia. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1985.
  • Strathern, Andrew. “Circulating Cults in Highland New Guinea: Pointers for Research.” Australian Journal of Anthropology, v.2, no. l., 1991, pp. 98-107.
  • Trompf, Garry W. Melanesian Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. The Gospel Is Not Western: Black Theologies from the Southwest Pacific. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1987.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The Voice of the Tambaran: Truth and Illusion in Ilahita Arapesh Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
  • Wagner, Roy. Habu: the Innovation of Meaning in Daribi Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

8. Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements

  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Mambu: a Melanesian Millennium. London: Methuen, 1960.
  • New Heaven, New Earth. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969.
  • Carley, Keith et al. Prophets of Melanesia: Six Essays. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Christiansen, Palle Ove. The Melanesian Cargo Cult: Millenarism as a Factor in Cultural Change. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1969.
  • Clarke, Jeffrey. “Madness and Colonisation: the Embodiment of Power in Pangia.” Oceania, v.63, no. , Sept 1992, pp. 15-26, 88-93.
  • Cochrane, Glynne. Big Men and Cargo Cults. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
  • Flannery, Wendy, ed. Religious Movements in Melanesia Today. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1983-84.
  • Gesch, Patrick F. Initiative and Initiation: a Cargo-type Movement in the Sepik against its Background in Traditional Village Religion. St Augustin: Anthropos-lnstitut, 1985.
  • Hermann, Elfriede. “The Yali Movement in Retrospect: Rewriting History, Redefining ‘Cargo Cults’.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 517-71, 88-93.
  • Kempf, Wolfgang. ” ‘The Second Coming of the Lord’: Early Christianization, Episodic Time, and the Cultural Construction of Continuity in Sibog.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 72, 86, 88-93.
  • Lattas, Andrew. “Skin, Personhood and Redemption: the Double Self in West New Britain Cargo Cults.” Oceania, v.63, no. 1, Sept 1992, pp. 27-54, 88-93.
  • Lawrence, Peter. Road belong Cargo: a Study of the Cargo Movement in the Southern Madang District, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1964.
  • Loeliger, Carl and Garry Trompf, ed. New Religious Movements in Melanesia. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • Rimoldi, Max and Eleanor Rimoldi. Hahalis and the Labour of Love: a Social Movement on Buka Island. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. The Paliau Movement in the Admiralty Islands, 1946-1954. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1962.
  • Steinbauer, Friedrich. Melanesian Cargo Cults: New Salvation Movements in the South Pacific. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1979.
  • Strelan, John G. Search for Salvation; Studies in the History and Theology of Cargo Cults. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House, 1977.
  • Trompf, Garry W., ed. Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements: Transoceanic Comparisons of New Religious Movements. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990.
  • Worsley, Peter. The Trumpet Shall Sound: a Study of ”Cargo” in Melanesia. London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1957; 2nd ed. 1968.

9. Sociology

 

  • Belshaw, Cyril S. The Great Village: the Economic and Social Welfare of Hanuabada, an Urban Community in Papua. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.
  • Biles, David. Crime in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1986.
  • Christie, Marion. Changing Consumer Behaviour in Papua New Guinea: its Social and Ecological Implications. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Clifford, William et al. Law and Order in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs and Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1984.
  • De’ath, Colin. The Throwaway People: Social Impact of the Gogol Timber Project, Madang Province. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1980.
  • Developments in Law and Order 1985. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1985.
  • Developments in Law and Order 1991. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1991.
  • Dinnen, Sinclair. “Big Men, Small Men and Invisible Women: Urban Crime and Inequality in Papua New Guinea.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, v.26, no. 1, Mar 1993, pp. 19-34.
  • Garnaut, Ross et al. Employment, Incomes and Migration in Papua New Guinea Towns. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1977.
  • Gordon, Robert J. and Mervyn John Meggitt. Law and Order in the New Guinea Highlands: Encounters with Enga. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England for the University of Vermont, 1985.
  • Jackson, Richard with John Odongo and Patrick Batho, ed. Urbanisation and its Problems in Papua New Guinea: Papers Presented to the 1979 Waigani Seminar. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1980.
  • Levine, Hal Barry and Marle Wolfzahn Levine. Urbanization in Papua New Guinea: a Study of Ambivalent Townsmen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy, ed. Reproductive Decision Making and the Value of Children in Rural Papua New Guinea. Boroko: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1988.
  • Mamak, Alexander and Ahmed Ali. Race, Class and Rebellion in the South Pacific. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1979.
  • Mantovani, Ennio. Marriage in Melanesia: a Theological Perspective. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1987.
  • Marshall, Mac, ed. Through a Glass Darkly: Beer and Modernization in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • May, Ronald J., ed. Change and Movement: Readings on Internal Migration in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research in association with Australian National University Press, 1977.
  • Morauta, Louise, ed. Law and Order in a Changing Society: Papers Prepared for a Conference on Law and Order in Papua New Guinea . . . 1985. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1986.
  • O’Collins, Maev. Social Development in Papua New Guinea 1972-1990: Searching for Solutions in a Changing World. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1993.
  • , ed. Youth and Society: Perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1986.
  • Ombudsman Commission of Papua New Guinea. Report Upon an Investigation into the Treatment of Juvenile Offenders. Port Moresby: Ombudsman Commission, 1986.
  • Report, Committee to Review Policy and Adminstration on Crime, Law and Order. Port Moresby: Department of Provincial Affairs, 1983.
  • Sack, Peter G. Problem of Choice: Land in Papua New Guinea’s Future. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • Stretton, Alan. Urban Housing in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Toft, Susan, ed. Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • . Domestic Violence in Urban Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1986.
  • Toft, Susan and Susanne Bonnell, comp. Marriage and Domestic Violence in Rural Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Law Reform Commission of Papua New Guinea, 1985.
  • Townsend, Patricia K. [photographs, Kirk Franklin]. The Situation of Children in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1985.
  • Urban Housing in Papua New Guinea: I. N. A. Public Seminar. . . 1983. Port Moresby: Institute of National Affairs, 1983.
  • Walker, John. Crime and Justice Statistics in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1985.

Cardinal Numbers in Tok Pisin

Numbers in Tok Pisin occur with and without –pela suffixed to them:

    1                       wan                                  wanpela
    2                      tu                                       tupela
    3                      tri                                      tripela
    4                      foa                                    fopela
    5                      faiv                                   faipela
    6                      sikis                                 sikispela
    7                      seven                               sevenpela
    8                      et                                       etpela
    9                      nain                                 nainpela
    10                    ten                                    tenpela

Those without –pela attached correspond to the names of the numbers in English and are used for mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and for counting money and telling the time, some of which will be presented in more detail later. Numbers beyond ten are not constructed as in English although one may occasionally hear the shorter ones with –pela attached to them, e.g.

    elevenpela                 eleven
    eitinpela                     eighteen
    twentipela                 twenty

Sometimes an older method of counting beyond ten is resorted to in modern contexts to make sure that there is no ambiguity or doubt about what is said. For example, on aircraft where the noise level is high the hostess might say The journey will take thirty-five minutes and will use tripela ten faiv minit for thirty-five . The numbers in this older method of counting are based on ten (except for the hundreds) and are regularly derived. Consider, for example:

    11                    wanpela ten wan
    12                   wanpela ten tu
    18                   wanpela ten et
    26                  tupela ten sikis
    54                  faipela ten foa
    80                  etpela ten
    100                wan handet

In the classroom nating, not or siro is used for nought or zero but outside it in everyday life the idea of nothing is expressed by i no gat wanpela (lit. there is not one). Approximations are given by samting olsem, e.g. Em i gat samting olsem fotisikis kina He’s got about K46 (lit. something like K46).

Personal Pronouns in Tok Pisin

The principal pronouns in Tok Pisin are:

Tok Pisin formRefers toEnglish
mithe speakerI, me
yuthe person spoken toyou
emthe person or thing spoken abouthe, she, it
him, her, it
yumithe speaker and person(s) spoken towe (incl.), us (incl.)
mipelathe speakers and person(s) with him and not including the person spoken towe (excl.), us (excl.)
yupe lathe persons spoken toyou (pl)
olthe persons spoken aboutthey, them

There are four important differences between these Tok Pisin pronouns and English ones:

1. There are no separate pronouns for he, she, it in Tok Pisin. These are all em. Thus Em i go long taun can mean either he went to town or she went to town;

2. In most carefully spoken varieties of Tok Pisin all the subject pronouns (except mi and yu) are followed by the special particle i which occurs between the pronoun and the verb, for example as in:

  • Mi wokabaut.
  • Yu wokabaut.
  • Em i wokabaut.
  • Yumi i wokabaut.
  • Mipela i wokabaut.
  • Yupela i wokabaut.
  • Ol i wokabaut.

In other varieties this particle is regularly omitted so that Em i wokabaut becomes Em wokabaut.

This particle is a most important part of the special structure of Tok Pisin and is usually referred to as the Predicative Particle or Predicate Marker. Its position relative to other items in sentences will be illustrated and discussed as they are introduced later. For teaching purposes it will be used after all pronouns except mi and yu in the first few units until learners get used to it. Then no further attention will be paid to it and it will be left out or used depending on context, speed of utterance and/or other factors operating at the time;

3. Most Tok Pisin speakers distinguish between yumi and mipela which are both represented as we in English. To distinguish the Tok Pisin forms in English yumi is said to be we (inclusive), that is we, including the person spoken to and mipela is said to be we (exclusive), that is we, excluding the person spoken to. Thus Mipela i go long taun means We (that is, my friends and I but not you) are going to town whereas Yumi go long taun means You and my friends and I are going to town;

4. Tok Pisin pronouns do not change form like English ones do when they occur as objects of verbs or prepositions (like long or bilong). Thus whereas in English one says He sees me and not He sees I, in Tok Pisin one says Em i lukim mi where mi is the same form as one uses in the beginning of sentences like Mi lukim em I see him.

Pronouns: dual and trial

In Tok Pisin it is customary to refer to the number of persons or things involved in any action, especially if there are only two or three. This is done by adding the numerals tupela and tripela to the pronouns mi, yu, em, yumi. Thus the set of pronouns given in the last table should now be expanded to include at least the following:

Tok PisinRefers toEnglish
mitupelathe speaker and the person with him but not including the person spoken towe (two) (excl. )
yumitupelathe speaker and the person spoken towe (two) (incl. )
yutupelathe two persons spoken toyou (two)
emtupelathe two persons spoken aboutthose (two)
mitripelathe speaker and the two persons with him but not including the person spoken towe (three) (excl.)
yumitripelathe speaker and the person with him and the person spoken towe (three) (incl.)
yutripelathe three persons spoken toyou (three)
emtripelathe three persons spoken aboutthose (three)

Reference to four, five , six, etc. can ‘be made in the same way by adding fopela, faipela, etc.