Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)

1. Anthropology, Social and Cultural

  • Abbi, Behari L. Traditional Groupings and Modern Associations: a Study of Changing Local Groups in Papua & New Guinea. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.
  • Allen, Michael R. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1967.
  • Armstrong, Wallace Edwin. Rossel Island: an Ethnological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.
  • Aufenanger, Heinrich. The Great Inheritance, Northeast New Guinea; a Collection of Anthropological Data. St. Augustin: Anthropos Institute, 1972.
  • The Passing Scene in North-east New Guinea. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1972.
  • Barth, Fredrik. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of New Guinea. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Bateson, Gregory. Naven: a Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe from Three Points of View. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2nd ed. 1958.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. Changing Melanesia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1964; reprinted, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray. Excess and Restraint: Social Control among a New Guinea Mountain People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Blackwood, Beatrice. Both Sides of Buka Passage: an Ethnographic Study of Social, Sexual, and Economic Questions in the North-western Solomon Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • from published articles and unpublished field-notes by Christopher Robert Hallpike. The Kukukuku of the Upper Watut. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum, 1978.
  • Böhm, Karl. The Life of Some Island People of New Guinea: a Missionary’s Observations of the Volcanic Islands of Manam, Boesa, Biem, and Ubrub. Berlin: D. Reimer, 1983.
  • Brandewie, Ernest. Contrast and Context in New Guinea Culture: the Case of the Mbowamb of the Central Highlands. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1981.
  • Brennan, Paul W., ed.. Exploring Enga Culture: Studies in Missionary Anthropology; Second Anthropological Conference of the New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970. [Papua New Guinea]: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. and Paula Brown. Struggle for Land: Agriculture and Group Territories among the Chimbu of the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1963.
  • Brown, Paula. The Chimbu: a Study of Change in the New Guinea Highlands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1972; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
  • Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  • Brown, Paula and Georgeda Buchbinder, ed. Man and Woman in the New Guinea Highlands. Washington, D. C.: American Anthropological Association, 1976.
  • Brunton, Ronald. The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Tangu Traditions: a Study of the Way of Life, Mythology and Developing Experience of a New Guinea People. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
  • Carrier, James G., ed. History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Carrier, James and Achshah H. Carrier. Structure and Process in a Melanesian Society: Ponam’s Progress in the Twentieth Century. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • Chowning, Ann. An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. 2nd ed., Menlo Park, California: Cummings Publishing Company, 1977.
  • Clark, Jeffrey. ”Pearlshell Symbolism in Highlands Papua New Guinea, Particular Reference to the Wiru People of Southern Highlands Province.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1991, pp. 309-339.
  • Clay, Brenda Johnson. Mandak Realities: Person and Power in Central New Ireland. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  • Pinkindu: Maternal Nurture, Paternal Substance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891.
  • Conton, Leslie. Women’s Roles in a Man’s World: Appearance and Reality in a New Guinea Lowland Village. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1977.
  • Cook, Edwin A. and Denise O’Brien. Blood and Semen: Kinship Systems of Highland New Guinea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980.
  • Cranstone, B. A. L. Melanesia: a Short Ethnography. London: British Museum, 1961.
  • Du Toit, Brian M. Akuna: a New Guinea Village Community. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1975.
  • Elkin, Adolphus Peter. Social Anthropology in Melanesia: a Review of Research. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard, ed. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • In the Midst of Life: Affect and Ideation in the World of the Tolai. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Matupit: Land, Politics, and Change among the Tolai of New Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1969.
  • Ernst, Thomas M. “Onabasulu Male Homosexuality: Cosmology, Affect and Prescribed Male Homosexual Activity among the Onabasulu of the Great Papuan Plateau.” Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 1-11.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl and Deborah Gewertz. Cultural Alternatives and a Feminist Anthropology: an Analysis of Culturally Constructed Gender Interests in Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Feil, Daryl Keith. Ways of Exchange: the Enga Tee of Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1984.
  • The Evolution of Highland Papua New Guinea Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Fitz-Patrick, David G. and John Kimbuna. Bundi: the Culture of a Papua New Guinea People. Nerang, Queensland: Ryebuck Publications, 1983.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Sorcerers of Dobu: the Social Anthropology of the Dobu Islanders of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge, 1932; rev. ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
  • Foster, Robert. “Commoditization and the Emergence of ‘Kastam’ as a Cultural Category: a New Ireland Case in Comparative Perspective.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1992, pp. 284-294.
  • Gelber, Marilyn G. Gender and Society in the New Guinea Highlands: an Anthropological Perspective on Antagonism towards Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986.
  • Gell, Alfred. The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda Society, Language and Ritual. London: Athlone Press, 1975.
  • Gewertz, Deborah B. Sepik River Societies: a Historical Ethnography of the Chambri and their Neighbors. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Gewertz, Deborah and Edward Schieffelin, ed. History and Ethnohistory in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Glasse, Robert M. Huli of Papua: a Cognatic Descent System. Paris: Mouton, 1968.
  • Glasse, Robert M. and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Pigs, Pearlshells and Women; Marriage in the New Guinea Highlands. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  • Godelier, Maurice, trans. Rupert Swyer. The Making of Great Men: Male Domination and Power among the New Guinea Baruya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Godelier, Maurice and Marilyn Strathern. Big Men and Great Men: Personifications of Power in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown. London: Methuen, 1901.
  • Hallpike, Christopher Robert. Bloodshed and Vengeance in the Papuan Mountains: the Generation of Conflict in Tauade Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Harrison, Simon. Stealing People’s Names: History and Politics in a Sepik River Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Hau’ofa, Epeli. Mekeo: Inequality and Ambivalence in a Village Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1981.
  • Healey, Christopher James. Maring Hunters and Traders: Production and Exchange in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Pioneers of the Mountain Forest: Settlement and Land Redistribution among the Kundagai Maring of the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
  • Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
  • The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987.
  • Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Hiatt, Lester Richard and Chandra Jayawardena, eds. Anthropology in Oceania: Essays Presented to lan Hogbin. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. Kinship and Marriage in a New Guinea Village. London: Athlone Press, 1963.
  • The Leaders and the Led: Social Control in Wogeo, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1978.
  • Social Change: Josiah Mason Lectures Delivered at the University of Birmingham. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1958, reprinted 1970.
  • Transformation Scene: the Changing Culture of a New Guinea Village. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian and Peter Lawrence. Studies in New Guinea Land Tenure. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1967.
  • Hutchins, Edwin Lee. Culture and Interference: a Trobriand Case Study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • Jarvie, Ian C. The Revolution in Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964; corrected reprint 1967.
  • Jenness, Diamond and A. Ballantyne. The Northern D’Entrecasteux. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1920.
  • Jolly, Margaret and Martha Mcintyre, ed. Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Josephides, Lisette. The Production of Inequality: Gender and Exchange among the Kewa. London: Tavistock, 1985.
  • Kahn, Miriam. Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the Expression of Gender in a Melanesian Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Kasprus, Aloys. The Tribes of the Middle Ramu and the Upper Keram Rivers (North-east New Guinea) St Augustin: Anthropos-Institut, 1973.
  • Kelly, Raymond Case. Etoro Social Structure: a Study in Structural Contradiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
  • Knauft, Bruce M. Good Company and Violence: Sorcery and Social Action in a Lowland New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • South Coast New Guinea Cultures: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Koch, Klaus Friedrich. War and Peace in Jalémó: the Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea: a Nature-born Instance of Rousseau’s Ideal Community. London: Macmillan, 1927; New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.
  • Langness, Lewis L. and Weschler, John C., ed. Melanesia; Readings on a Culture Area. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1971.
  • Lawrence, Peter. The Garia: an Ethnography of a Traditional Cosmic System in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
  • Land Tenure among the Garia: the Traditional System of a New Guinea People. Canberra: Australian National University, 1955.
  • Leach, Jerry W. and Edmund Leach, ed. The Kula: New Perspectives on Massim Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Lederman, Rena. What Gifts Engender: Social Relations and Politics in Mendi, Highland Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: an Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Knowledge of Illness in a Sepik Society: a Study of the Gnau, New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1975.
  • Lidz, Theodore et al. Oedipus in the Stone Age: a Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press, 1989.
  • Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy. The Mundugumor: from the Field Notes of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
  • MacKenzie, Maureen Anne. Androgynous Objects: String Bags and Gender in Central New Guinea. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • McSwain, Romola. The Past and Future People: Tradition and Change on a New Guinea Island. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men for Old: a Study of Cultural Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1961.
  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922.
  • Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1926.
  • Norbert Guterman. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967.
  • ed. by Michael W. Young. The Ethnography of Malinowski: the Trobriand Islands 1915-18. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
  • Magic, Science and Religion, and Other Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • Sex and Repression in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927; New York: Humanities Press, 1951.
  • Sex, Culture and Myth. London: Hart-Davis, 1963.
  • The Sexual Life of Savages in North-western Melanesia: an Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London: Routledge, 1929; 3rd ed., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1932.
  • Mawe, Theodore. Mendi Culture and Tradition: a Recent Survey. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1985.
  • Mead, Margaret. Growing up in New Guinea: a Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow, 1930; London: Routledge, 1931; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1942, 1965, 1981.
  • The Mountain Arapesh. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1938-45; reprinted Garden City, New York: Natural History Press, 1968-71.
  • New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation, Manus, 1928-53. New York: William Morrow,; London, Gollancz: 1956; 2nd ed., New York: William Morrow, 1966.
  • Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1935.
  • Meggitt, Mervyn John. Blood is their Argument: Warfare among the Mae Enga Tribesmen of the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1977.
  • The Lineage System of the Mae-Enga of New Guinea. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.
  • Studies in Enga History. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1974.
  • Mimica, Jadran. “The Incest Passions: an Outline of the Logic of Iqwaye Social Organization.” Part 1: Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 34-58; Part 2: Oceania, v.62, no. 2, Dec 1991, pp. 81-113.
  • Mitchell, William E., ed. Clowning as Critical Practice: Performance Humor in the South Pacific. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
  • Morren, George E. B. The Miyanmin: Human Ecology of a Papua New Guinea Society. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Mosko, Mark S. Quadripartite Structures: Categories, Relations and Homologies in Bush Mekeo Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Munn, Nancy D. The Fame of Gawa: a Symbolic Study of Value Transformation in a Massim (Papua New Guinea) Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976; Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1992.
  • Neumann, Klaus. “Tradition and Identity in Papua New Guinea: Some Observations regarding Tami and Tolai.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 295-316.
  • Newman, Philip Lee. Knowing the Gururumba. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.
  • Oliver, Douglas. A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1955.
  • Studies in the Anthropology of Bougainville, Solomon Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 1949.
  • Otto, Tom. “The Ways of ‘Kastam’: Tradition as Category and Practice in a Manus Village.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 264-283.
  • Pataki-Schweizer, K. J. A New Guinea Landscape: Community, Space and Time in the Eastern Highlands. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.
  • Powdermaker, Louise [Hortense]. Life in Lesu: the Study of a Melanesian Society in New Ireland. London: Williams and Norgate, 1933; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968; new ed. 1984.
  • Read, Kenneth E. The High Valley. New York: Scribner, 1965; London: Allen and Unwin, 1966.
  • Return to the High Valley: Coming Full Circle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Reay, Marie. The Kuma: Freedom and Conformity in the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1959.
  • Robbins, Sterling. Auyuna: Those Who Held onto Home. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Warfare, Marriage and the Distribution of Goods in Auyana. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Mead’s Other Manus: Phenomenology of the Encounter. South Hadley, Massachusetts: Bergin and Garvey, 1985.
  • Rubel, Paula G. and Abraham Rosman. Your Own Pigs You May Not Eat: a Comparative Study of New Guinea Societies. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1977.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. and Robert Crittenden, ed. Like People You See in a Dream: First Contact in Six Papuan Societies. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1991.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. “Kastom, ‘custom’, and culture: conspicuous culture and culture constructs.” Anthropological Forum, v.6, no.4, 1993, pp. 515-540.
  • Schwimmer, Erik. Exchange in the Social Structure of the Orokaiva: Traditional and Emergent Ideologies in the Northern District of Papua. London: Hurst; Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Seligman, Charles Gabriel. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910.
  • Shaw, R. Daniel. Kinship Studies in Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • Sorenson, E. Richard. The Edge of the Forest: Childhood and Change in a New Guinea Protoagricultural Society. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.
  • Spiro, Melford E. Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Stephen, Michele, ed. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press with Research Centre for South-west Pacific Studies, Latrobe University, 1987.
  • Strathern, Andrew A. Landmarks: Reflections on Anthropology. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.
  • A Line of Power. London: Tavistock, 1984.
  • One Father, One Blood: Descent and Group Structure among the Melpa People. Canberra: Australian National University Press; London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.
  • The Rope of Moka: Big-men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • Inequality in New Guinea Highlands Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Strathern, Marilyn. The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
  • . Partial Connections. Savage, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.
  • Women in Between: Female Roles in a Male World: Mount Hagen, New Guinea. London: Seminar Press, 1972.
  • , ed. Dealing with Inequality: Analysing Gender Relations in Melanesia and Beyond; Essays by Members of the 1983/ 1984 Anthropological Research Group at the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Swadling, Pamela, ed. People of the West Sepik Coast. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1979.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The llahita Arapesh: Dimensions of Unity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • Uberoi, J. P. Singh. Politics of the Kula-ring: an Analysis of the Findings of Bronislaw Malinowski. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1962.
  • Valentine, Charles A. Masks and Men in a Melanesian Society: the Valuku or Tubuan of the Lakalai of New Britain. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1961.
  • Vicedom, Georg F. and Herbert Tischner, trans. by Helen M. Groger-Wurm. The Mbowamb: the Culture of the Mount Hagen Tribes in East Central New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1983.
  • Waddell, E. The Mound Builders: Agricultural Practices, Environment, and Society in the Central Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Wagner, Roy. Asiwinarong: Ethos, Image, and Social Power among the Usen Barok of New Ireland. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • . The Curse of Souw: Principles of Daribi Clan Definition and Alliance in New Guinea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
  • Watson, James B. Tairora Culture: Contingency and Pragmatism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983.
  • , ed. New Guinea: the Central Highlands. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1964.
  • Weiner, Annette. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Quensland Press, 1977.
  • Weiner, James F. The Empty Place; Poetry, Space, and Being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. Mountain Papuans. Historical and Comparative Perspectives from New Guinea Fringe Highlands Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.
  • Westerman, Ted. The Mountain People: Social Institutions of the Laiapu Enga. Wapenamanda: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1968.
  • Whiteman, Darrell L. An Introduction to Melanesian Cultures: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • Whiting, John Wesley Mayhew. Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and Learning in a New Guinea Tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press for Institute of Human Relations, 1941; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Williams, Francis Edgar. Drama of Orokolo: Social and Ceremonial Life of the Elema. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
  • . Orokaiva Magic. London: Oxford University Press, 1928; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1969.
  • . Orokaiva Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1982.
  • . Papuans of the Trans-Fly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936; reprinted by arrangement with the Administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1969.
  • , ed. Erik Schwimmer. ”The Vailala Madness” and Other Essays. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.
  • Williamson, Robert Wood. The Mafulu: Mountain People of British New Guinea. London: Macmillan, 1912.
  • Young, Michael. Fighting with Food: Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • . Magicians of Manumanu: Living Myth in Kalauna. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)”

Cardinal Numbers in Tok Pisin

Numbers in Tok Pisin occur with and without –pela suffixed to them:

    1                       wan                                  wanpela
    2                      tu                                       tupela
    3                      tri                                      tripela
    4                      foa                                    fopela
    5                      faiv                                   faipela
    6                      sikis                                 sikispela
    7                      seven                               sevenpela
    8                      et                                       etpela
    9                      nain                                 nainpela
    10                    ten                                    tenpela

Those without –pela attached correspond to the names of the numbers in English and are used for mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and for counting money and telling the time, some of which will be presented in more detail later. Numbers beyond ten are not constructed as in English although one may occasionally hear the shorter ones with –pela attached to them, e.g.

    elevenpela                 eleven
    eitinpela                     eighteen
    twentipela                 twenty

Sometimes an older method of counting beyond ten is resorted to in modern contexts to make sure that there is no ambiguity or doubt about what is said. For example, on aircraft where the noise level is high the hostess might say The journey will take thirty-five minutes and will use tripela ten faiv minit for thirty-five . The numbers in this older method of counting are based on ten (except for the hundreds) and are regularly derived. Consider, for example:

    11                    wanpela ten wan
    12                   wanpela ten tu
    18                   wanpela ten et
    26                  tupela ten sikis
    54                  faipela ten foa
    80                  etpela ten
    100                wan handet

In the classroom nating, not or siro is used for nought or zero but outside it in everyday life the idea of nothing is expressed by i no gat wanpela (lit. there is not one). Approximations are given by samting olsem, e.g. Em i gat samting olsem fotisikis kina He’s got about K46 (lit. something like K46).

Personal Pronouns in Tok Pisin

The principal pronouns in Tok Pisin are:

Tok Pisin Refers to English
mi the speaker I, me
yu the person spoken to you
em the person or thing spoken about he, she, it
him, her, it
yumi the speaker and person(s) spoken to we (incl.), us (incl.)
mipela the speakers and person(s) with him and not including the person spoken to we (excl.), us (excl.)
yupela the persons spoken to you (pl)
ol the persons spoken about they, them

There are four important differences between these Tok Pisin pronouns and English ones:

1. There are no separate pronouns for he, she, it in Tok Pisin. These are all em. Thus Em i go long taun can mean either he went to town or she went to town;

2. In most carefully spoken varieties of Tok Pisin all the subject pronouns (except mi and yu) are followed by the special particle i which occurs between the pronoun and the verb, for example as in:

  • Mi wokabaut.
  • Yu wokabaut.
  • Em i wokabaut.
  • Yumi i wokabaut.
  • Mipela i wokabaut.
  • Yupela i wokabaut.
  • Ol i wokabaut.

In other varieties this particle is regularly omitted so that Em i wokabaut becomes Em wokabaut.

This particle is a most important part of the special structure of Tok Pisin and is usually referred to as the Predicative Particle or Predicate Marker. Its position relative to other items in sentences will be illustrated and discussed as they are introduced later. For teaching purposes it will be used after all pronouns except mi and yu in the first few units until learners get used to it. Then no further attention will be paid to it and it will be left out or used depending on context, speed of utterance and/or other factors operating at the time;

3. Most Tok Pisin speakers distinguish between yumi and mipela which are both represented as we in English. To distinguish the Tok Pisin forms in English yumi is said to be we (inclusive), that is we, including the person spoken to and mipela is said to be we (exclusive), that is we, excluding the person spoken to. Thus Mipela i go long taun means We (that is, my friends and I but not you) are going to town whereas Yumi go long taun means You and my friends and I are going to town;

4. Tok Pisin pronouns do not change form like English ones do when they occur as objects of verbs or prepositions (like long or bilong). Thus whereas in English one says He sees me and not He sees I, in Tok Pisin one says Em i lukim mi where mi is the same form as one uses in the beginning of sentences like Mi lukim em I see him.

Pronouns: dual and trial

In Tok Pisin it is customary to refer to the number of persons or things involved in any action, especially if there are only two or three. This is done by adding the numerals tupela and tripela to the pronouns mi, yu, em, yumi. Thus the set of pronouns given in the last table should now be expanded to include at least the following:

Tok Pisin Refers to English
mitupela the speaker and the person with him but not including the person spoken to we (two) (excl. )
yumitupela the speaker and the person spoken to we (two) (incl. )
yutupela the two persons spoken to you (two)
emtupela the two persons spoken about those (two)
mitripela the speaker and the two persons with him but not including the person spoken to we (three) (excl.)
yumitripela the speaker and the person with him and the person spoken to we (three) (incl.)
yutripela the three persons spoken to you (three)
emtripela the three persons spoken about those (three)

Reference to four, five , six, etc. can ‘be made in the same way by adding fopela, faipela, etc.

Provincial government of Papua New Guinea

The decentralisation policy

The provincial government system was initially introduced in the late 1970s after protracted discussions within government circles as to whether PNG, after gaining independence from Australia in 1975, should continue with a centralised political structure, or consider a much more complex decentralised version. The Constitutional Planning Committee (CPC), the group that comprised elected MPs and technocrats who were commissioned to oversee the drafting of PNG’s constitution, unanimously pushed for decentralisation as it was deemed a better ‘fit’ for PNG with the added novelty of being a design that was inclusive of ordinary people in contrast to a centralised system that projected exclusive control from an isolated central point. Accordingly, the decentralisation policy was introduced amidst widespread reservations. The reservations were by no means baseless. Given the truncated colonial history of the country, a modern state was superimposed on the diverse population from the 1950s, and strengthened after the first national elections in PNG in 1964. Eleven years later, independence was granted at a time when nation building and state building were profound dual challenges. Secession was expressed by Bougainville and the Papuan region as groups of people sought to protect their respective identities within the uncharted seas of political change. So when the decentralisation policy was first suggested, contrasting fears were expressed by sections of society. The policy could either work against nation building efforts – and worse still, perpetuate the disintegration of the country if groups of people were to relish this opportunity and push for a break away from PNG. Or, the decentralisation structure could accommodate the deeply diverse population by granting some degree of freedom to groups to run their own affairs while remaining under the umbrella of PNG. Either way, the challenge was always going to be colossal for a country that had just emerged from a stateless form.

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Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Papua New Guinea

Corruption in Papua New Guinea is widespread and endemic, penetrating all levels of society. This situation is reflected in Papua New Guinea’s poor performance in most areas assessed by governance indicators. Official corruption and the misappropriation/theft of public funds are seen as the most significant governance issues of the country.

Papua New Guinea’s governance structure is rather comprehensive and the government has voiced its ambition to fight corruption. Anti-corruption efforts are nevertheless ineffective due to poor implementation of existing laws, considerable resource gaps and confusion over the overlapping responsibility of anticorruption and law enforcement agencies.

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Telecoms Boom in Papua New Guinea

Years of neglect of network infrastructure meant that, until relatively recently, Papua New Guinea experienced only minimal coverage by landlines and even less by mobile networks. In mid-2007, total teledensity was just four per cent countrywide and zero in the majority of rural area. The sector was liberalised in 2007, and Irish company Digicel entered the market soon after. Prices dropped quickly, and innovative retail models and advertising campaigns meant that consumer uptake was swift. Mobile networks have expanded exponentially over the past five years to now cover some 75 per cent of the country’s population. Phone ownership has increased apace, and some estimates suggest that over 30 per cent of the population now has a mobile phone, dwarfing the number of fixed-line connections. Mobile phone penetration is growing fast — from just 1 per cent in 2005 to 35 per cent in 2011.

Remote Digicel Sales

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Kinship Terms in Tok Pisin

Even today Papua New Guineans stand under a host of kinship obligations which would seem oppressive to most Europeans and North Americans. Some traditional societies reckon kinship through the father, some through the mother, and some through both parents. Similarly residence and gardening rights may pass through the father, the mother or both. In some societies where it is believed that women sap men’s strength and endanger men’s health, husbands and wives did not live in the same house until forced by Christian missionaries to do so (and even today often live in separate rooms of a shared house). In some societies, certain relatives have an obligation to provide pigs, shell money and other forms of wealth (these days including increasingly large amounts of cash) to help a man pay the brideprice (braitprais; mani bilong baim meri) custom requires him to give his prospective wife’s family. The basic Tok Pisin kinship terminology is given below.

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