Employment and work in the settlements

by Fiona Hukula, Papua New Guinea National Research Institute

Settlements in Papua New Guinea have always been associated with low income earners and unemployment. This categorisation leads to assumptions about criminality, urban safety and vagrancy. A settlement, though physically part of Port Moresby, epitomises the contradictions of an ideal urban social life, the world of the city where you can thrive to make a living through paid employment or street selling in the informal economy. The growing middle class including business people and white collar workers and the educated elite of Port Moresby continually condemn settlements as crime infested locales, connected to the city through potholed roads and illegal utility connections, where unemployed people spend their days sitting around gambling, planning criminal activities and engaging in other behaviour considered socially unacceptable. These assumptions are largely based on negative media coverage, a western informed idea about what a modern Port Moresby should look like, coupled with a lack of knowledge of the lives of settlement residents. The ongoing debate about settlements and urbanisation has been prevalent in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since the 1970s. The daily newspapers regularly publish letters from Port Moresby residents condemning settlers and urging the government to take a tougher stance by repatriating them to their home provinces. In addition to the more traditional forms of media, the internet has given Papua New Guineans the opportunity to debate such issues on online forums, facebook, blogs and on websites concerning PNG. Continue reading “Employment and work in the settlements”

Transition to modernity: Migrant settlements and customary land issues in Port Moresby

by Mary Walta, Australian National University

For Papua New Guineans, the transition from traditional lifestyles in rural villages to modernity in urban settlements started around 60 years ago. Those most affected by this change are the 13 per cent of the rural population who now make up the rapidly growing urban centres. In this short time, they have relinquished their traditional subsistence lifestyles in isolated settlements to live among fellow countrymen in some of the most socioculturally diverse settlements on the planet. Although lifestyles have changed in the urban setting, traditional norms and values still inform the adjustment to urban settlement and livelihoods.

This article highlights some key issues involved in this rapid transition including: the features of traditional social organisation and its ability to integrate non-kin; the key challenges of urban settlement; and recent urbanisation policy.

Continue reading “Transition to modernity: Migrant settlements and customary land issues in Port Moresby”

Books about Papua New Guinea – General (I)

1. General Introductory Works

  • Dorney, Sean. Papua New Guinea: People, Politics and History since 1975. Milson’s Point, New South Wales: Random House, 1990.
  • Ford, Edgar. Papua New Guinea: the Land and the People. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda, 1973.
  • King, David and S. Ranck, ed. Papua New Guinea Atlas: a Nation in Transition. Bathurst, New South Wales, and Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates and the University of Papua New Guinea, 1982.
  • Löffler, Ernst. Papua New Guinea. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson of Australia, 1979.
  • McKay, Roy D. New Guinea. Amsterdam: Time-Life, 1976.
  • May, Ronald J. and Hank Nelson, ed. Melanesia, Beyond Diversity. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. The Melanesian Way. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. Papua New Guinea: the Challenge of Independence. Melbourne: Penguin, 1990.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – General (I)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Culture (II)

1. Folklore and Mythology

 

  • Abel, Russell William. Tales told in Papua: Four Original Papuan Stories retold in English. London: Livingstone Press, 1943.
  • Beier, Ulli, comp. When the Moon Was Big, and Other Legends from New Guinea. Sydney: Collins, 1972.
  • Beier, Ulli and Prithvindra Chakravarti, comp. and ed. Sun and Moon in New Guinea Folklore. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Brash, Elton and Nigel Krauth, ed. Traditional Poems, Chants and Songs of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Papua Pocket Poets, 1973.
  • Brown, Herbert A. Three Elema Myths. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Gehberger, Johann, trans. John J. Tschauder and Pamela Swadling. The Myths of Samap: East Sepik Myths from Samap, Mandi and Senampeli Recorded between 1938 and 1940. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Gillison, Gillian. Between Culture and Fantasy: a New Guinea Highlands Mythology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Hesse, Karl, trans. Ulli Beier. Baining Legends. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Hesse, Karl and Theo Aerts, trans. and ed. Theo Aerts. Baining Dances. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • . Baining Life and Lore. Port Moresby, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • Höltker, Georg, trans. Ulli Beier. Myths and Legends from Murik Lakes, Part 1. Port Moresby:Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1975.
  • , trans. Gabrielle Duigu. Myths and Legends of the Monumbo and Ngaimbom Papuans of Northeast New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Janssen, Hermann et al. Tolai Myths of Origin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Jenness, D. and A. Ballantyne. Language, Mythology and Songs of Bwaidoga: Goodenough Island, S. E. Papua. New Plymouth, New Zealand: T. Avery, 1928.
  • Köhnke, Glenys. The Shark Callers: an Ancient Fishing Tradition of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Yumi Press, 1974.
  • . Taim belong Tumbuna: Legends and Traditions of Papua New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Folk Tales of the Kiwai Papuans. Helsinki: Societas Scientarum Fennica, 1917.
  • Laupu, Jakob Mus, transcribed and trans. C. Dorothy A. Counts. Ol Stori bilong Laupu [The Stories of Laupu]. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • LeRoy, John. Fabricated World: an Interpretation of Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • , trans. and ed. Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • Lett, Lewis. Savage Tales. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1946.
  • Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, trans. Brian Elliott. Primitive Mythology: the Mythic World of the Australian and Papuan Natives. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1983.
  • McElhanon, Kenneth A., ed. Legends from Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Noble, Philip. String Figures of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • Pekoro, Morea. Orokolo Genesis: an Account of the Origin of the World and the People of Niugini as told in Hiri Motu. Port Moresby: Niugini Press, 1973.
  • Roleasmalik, Pensa M. Traditional Games of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Standards Division, Provincial Educational Services, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 1979.
  • Stokes, Donald S., comp. The Turtle and the Island: Folktales from Papua New Guinea, retold by Barbara Ker Wilson. Sydney: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978, 1980; Port Moresby: Web Books, 1985.
  • Strathern, Andrew, coll. and trans. Melpa Amb Kenan [Melpa Courting Songs]. Boroko: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • . ed. Wiru Stories (Southern Highlands Province) Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1983.
  • Vicedom, Georg F., trans. Andrew Strathern. Myths and Legends from Mount Hagen. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Wagner, Roy. Lethal speech: Daribi Myth of Symbolic Obviation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.
  • Young, Maribelle, comp. and trans. Bwaidoka Tales. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1979.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Culture (II)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Economy (III)

1. General

  • Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook, May 1988. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • , The Papua New Guinea Economy: Prospects for Sectoral Development & Broad Based Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993.
  • Baldwin, George B. et al. Papua New Guinea, its Economic Situation and Prospects for Development: Report of a Mission Sent to Papua New Guinea by the World Bank . . . Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 1978.
  • Callick, Rowan. “A World Bank Prescription for PNG”. Australian Society, v.10, no. 9, Oct 1991, pp. 17-18.
  • Country Profile: Papua New Guinea. London: Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), 1986- .
  • Dahanayake, P. A. S., ed. Policy Options for Papua New Guinea under Economic Conditions Resulting from the BCL Crisis; Papers Presented at the NRI Economic Policy Seminar held on 15 February 1990. Port Moresby: National Research Institute, 1990.
  • . Post-Independence Economic Development of Papua New Guinea; Proceedings of the IASER Conference. . . 198 . . . Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • Daniel, Philip and Rod Sims. Foreign Investment in Papua New Guinea: Policies and Practices. Canberra: National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Elek, Andrew. “Papua New Guinea: Economic Recovery from the Bougainville Crisis and Prospects for the 1990s”. Economic Papers (Sydney) v. 11, no. 2, June 1992, pp. 13-31.
  • Fallon, John. The Papua New Guinean Economy: Prospects for Recovery, Reform and Sustained Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1992.
  • Fleeton, M. and R. McGregor. Papua New Guinea. Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • Goodman, Raymond et al. The Economy of Papua New Guinea: an Independent Review: a report to the Government of Papua New Guinea and the Government of Australia. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Gupta, Desh and Samson Polume, ed. Economic Policy Issues and Options in Papua New Guinea: Papers from a Seminar . . . at the University of Papua New Guinea . . . 1983. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1984.
  • Jarrett, Frank G. et al. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Stein, Leslie. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991.
  • Thompson, Herb. “Economic Theory and Economic Development in Papua New Guinea”. Journal of Contemporary Asia, v.21, no. 1, 1991, pp.54-67.
  • . The Political Economy of Papua New Guinea: Critical Essays. Manila: Journal of Contemporary Asia Publishers, 1992.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Economy (III)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – History (IV)

1. General

  • Biskup, Peter et al. A Short History of New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968; rev. ed. 1970.
  • Blong, Russell J. The Time of Darkness: Local Legends and Volcanic Reality in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Denoon, Donald and Roderic Lacey. Oral Tradition in Melanesia. Port Moresby: The University of Papua New Guinea and The Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1981.
  • Gash, Noel and June Whittaker. A Pictorial History of New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1975; Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Inglis, Kenneth Stanley, ed. The History of Melanesia: Second Waigani Seminar. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1971.
  • Jinks, Brian et al. Readings in New Guinea History. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Kolia, John. The History of Balawaia. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Latukefu, Sione, ed. Papua New Guinea: a Century of Colonial Impact. Port Moresby: National Research Institute and University of Papua New Guinea, 1989.
  • Moore, Clive R. et al., comp. Colonial Intrusion: Papua New Guinea 1884. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Nelson, Hank. Black, White and Gold: Goldmining in Papua New Guinea 1878-1930. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1976.
  • Oliver, Douglas. Black Islanders: a Personal Perspective of Bougainville 1937-1991. South Yarra, Victoria: Hyland House, 1991.
  • . Bougainville, a Personal History. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1974.
  • . The Pacific Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1951.
  • Price, A. Grenfell. The Challenge of New Guinea: Australian Aid to Papuan Progress. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1965.
  • Reed, Stephen Winsor. The Making of Modern New Guinea, with Special Reference to Culture Contact in the Mandated Territory. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society with the International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1943.
  • Rowley, Charles D. The New Guinea Villager: a Retrospect from 1964. Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1965.
  • Sack, Peter G. The Bloodthirsty Laewomba?: Myth and History in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1976.
  • . Land between Two Laws: Early European Land Acquisitions in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.
  • Sinclair, James. Papua New Guinea, the First 100 Years. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Souter, Gavin. New Guinea: the Last Unknown. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1963.
  • Thompson, Roger C. Australian Imperialism in the Pacific: the Expansionist Era 1820-1920. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1980.
  • Todd, Ian. Papua New Guinea: Moment of Truth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1974.
  • Waiko, John Dademo. A Short History of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Whittaker, June L. et al. Documents and Readings in New Guinea History: Prehistory to 1889. Brisbane: Jacaranda Press, 1975.
  • Wu, David Yen-Ho. The Chinese in Papua New Guinea, 18801980. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1982.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – History (IV)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Politics and Government (V)

1. General

  • Australian Institute of Political Science, ed. John Wilkes. New Guinea . . . Future Indefinite?: Papers Read at the 34th Summer School of the Institute. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968.
  • Ballard, John Addison, ed. Policy Making in a New State: Papua New Guinea, 1972-77. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1981.
  • The Barnett Report: a Summary of the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Aspects of the Timber Industry in Papua New Guinea. Hobart: Asia-Pacific Action Group, 1990.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray and Peter Lawrence, ed. Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change; Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1971.
  • Bettison, David George et al., ed. The Papua New Guinea Elections, 1964. Canberra: Australian National University, 1965.
  • Bonney, Norman. The Politics and Finance of Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Centre for Research on Federal Financial Relations, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Conyers, Diana. The Provincial Government Debate: Central Control Versus Local Participation in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1976.
  • Dwivedi, O. P. in collaboration with Nelson E. Paulias, ed. Ethics in Government: the Public Service of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Administrative College of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard et al., ed. The Politics of Dependence: Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1971.
  • Grosart, Ian, ed. A New Guinea Brief: Select Documents on Political Development of Papua and New Guinea. Sydney: Australian Institute of Political Science, 1967.
  • Hasluck, Paul Meernaa Caedwalla [Sir Paul]. Australia’s Task in Papua and New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1956.
  • . A Time for Building: Australian Administration in Papua and New Guinea 1951-1963. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Hegarty, David, ed. Electoral Politics in Papua New Guinea: Studies on the 1977 National Elections. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1983.
  • Jinks, Brian. New Guinea Government: an Introduction. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • May, Ronald J., ed. Micronationalist Movements in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1982.
  • Morauta, Louise. Beyond the Village: Local Politics in Madang, Papua New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1974.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. Life and Leadership in Melanesia. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Nelson, Hank. Papua New Guinea: Black Chaos or Black Unity? Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1972.
  • Pokawin, Stephen. “Papua New Guinea; Post Colonial Experiences of Australian Public Administration”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.51., no.2, June 1992, pp. 169-175.
  • Premdas, Ralph and Stephen Pokawin, ed. Decentralization: the Papua New Guinean Experiment; Waigani Seminar Papers 1978. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1979.
  • Standish, Bill. Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea: Early lessons from Chimbu. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Stephen, David. A History of Political Parties in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Lansdown Press, 1972.
  • Stone, David, ed. Prelude to Self-government. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University and University of Papua New Guinea, 1976.
  • Tanham, George K. and Eleanor S. Wainstein. ”Prepared for the Under Secretary for Defense Policy”. Papua New Guinea Today. Santa Monica, California: RAND, 1990.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. “The Long and Winding Road: Administrative Training in Post Colonial Papua New Guinea”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.52, no. 2, June 1992.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald and David W. Hegarty. The 1987 Election in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1987.
  • Ward, Marion W., ed. The Politics of Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Fourth Waigani Seminar . . . 1970. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1970.
  • White, Osmar. Parliament of a Thousand Tribes: Papua New Guinea, the Story of an Emerging Nation. London: Heinemann, 1965; rev. ed., Melbourne, Wren, 1972.
  • Woolford, Don. Papua New GuineaInitiation and Independence. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Politics and Government (V)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)

1. General

  • Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. Science in Emergent Countries. Sydney: ANZAAS, 1970; Search vol. 1 no. 5; special issue on 42nd Congress of ANZAAS, Port Moresby, 1970.
  • Morton, J. R., ed. The Role of Science and Technology in the Development of Papua New Guinea: the Policy Dimensions. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)

1. Anthropology, Social and Cultural

  • Abbi, Behari L. Traditional Groupings and Modern Associations: a Study of Changing Local Groups in Papua & New Guinea. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.
  • Allen, Michael R. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1967.
  • Armstrong, Wallace Edwin. Rossel Island: an Ethnological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928.
  • Aufenanger, Heinrich. The Great Inheritance, Northeast New Guinea; a Collection of Anthropological Data. St. Augustin: Anthropos Institute, 1972.
  • The Passing Scene in North-east New Guinea. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1972.
  • Barth, Fredrik. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of New Guinea. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Bateson, Gregory. Naven: a Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe from Three Points of View. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2nd ed. 1958.
  • Belshaw, Cyril S. Changing Melanesia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1964; reprinted, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray. Excess and Restraint: Social Control among a New Guinea Mountain People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Blackwood, Beatrice. Both Sides of Buka Passage: an Ethnographic Study of Social, Sexual, and Economic Questions in the North-western Solomon Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • from published articles and unpublished field-notes by Christopher Robert Hallpike. The Kukukuku of the Upper Watut. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum, 1978.
  • Böhm, Karl. The Life of Some Island People of New Guinea: a Missionary’s Observations of the Volcanic Islands of Manam, Boesa, Biem, and Ubrub. Berlin: D. Reimer, 1983.
  • Brandewie, Ernest. Contrast and Context in New Guinea Culture: the Case of the Mbowamb of the Central Highlands. St Augustin: Anthropos Institut, 1981.
  • Brennan, Paul W., ed.. Exploring Enga Culture: Studies in Missionary Anthropology; Second Anthropological Conference of the New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970. [Papua New Guinea]: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1970.
  • Brookfield, Harold C. and Paula Brown. Struggle for Land: Agriculture and Group Territories among the Chimbu of the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1963.
  • Brown, Paula. The Chimbu: a Study of Change in the New Guinea Highlands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman, 1972; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
  • Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  • Brown, Paula and Georgeda Buchbinder, ed. Man and Woman in the New Guinea Highlands. Washington, D. C.: American Anthropological Association, 1976.
  • Brunton, Ronald. The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Burridge, Kenelm O. L. Tangu Traditions: a Study of the Way of Life, Mythology and Developing Experience of a New Guinea People. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
  • Carrier, James G., ed. History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Carrier, James and Achshah H. Carrier. Structure and Process in a Melanesian Society: Ponam’s Progress in the Twentieth Century. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • Chowning, Ann. An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. 2nd ed., Menlo Park, California: Cummings Publishing Company, 1977.
  • Clark, Jeffrey. ”Pearlshell Symbolism in Highlands Papua New Guinea, Particular Reference to the Wiru People of Southern Highlands Province.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1991, pp. 309-339.
  • Clay, Brenda Johnson. Mandak Realities: Person and Power in Central New Ireland. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
  • Pinkindu: Maternal Nurture, Paternal Substance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Codrington, Robert Henry. The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891.
  • Conton, Leslie. Women’s Roles in a Man’s World: Appearance and Reality in a New Guinea Lowland Village. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1977.
  • Cook, Edwin A. and Denise O’Brien. Blood and Semen: Kinship Systems of Highland New Guinea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980.
  • Cranstone, B. A. L. Melanesia: a Short Ethnography. London: British Museum, 1961.
  • Du Toit, Brian M. Akuna: a New Guinea Village Community. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1975.
  • Elkin, Adolphus Peter. Social Anthropology in Melanesia: a Review of Research. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard, ed. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1974.
  • In the Midst of Life: Affect and Ideation in the World of the Tolai. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Matupit: Land, Politics, and Change among the Tolai of New Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press; Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1969.
  • Ernst, Thomas M. “Onabasulu Male Homosexuality: Cosmology, Affect and Prescribed Male Homosexual Activity among the Onabasulu of the Great Papuan Plateau.” Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 1-11.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974.
  • Errington, Frederick Karl and Deborah Gewertz. Cultural Alternatives and a Feminist Anthropology: an Analysis of Culturally Constructed Gender Interests in Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Feil, Daryl Keith. Ways of Exchange: the Enga Tee of Papua New Guinea. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1984.
  • The Evolution of Highland Papua New Guinea Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Fitz-Patrick, David G. and John Kimbuna. Bundi: the Culture of a Papua New Guinea People. Nerang, Queensland: Ryebuck Publications, 1983.
  • Fortune, Reo Franklin. Sorcerers of Dobu: the Social Anthropology of the Dobu Islanders of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge, 1932; rev. ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
  • Foster, Robert. “Commoditization and the Emergence of ‘Kastam’ as a Cultural Category: a New Ireland Case in Comparative Perspective.” Oceania, v.61, no.4, June 1992, pp. 284-294.
  • Gelber, Marilyn G. Gender and Society in the New Guinea Highlands: an Anthropological Perspective on Antagonism towards Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986.
  • Gell, Alfred. The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg, 1992.
  • Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries: Umeda Society, Language and Ritual. London: Athlone Press, 1975.
  • Gewertz, Deborah B. Sepik River Societies: a Historical Ethnography of the Chambri and their Neighbors. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Gewertz, Deborah and Edward Schieffelin, ed. History and Ethnohistory in Papua New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Glasse, Robert M. Huli of Papua: a Cognatic Descent System. Paris: Mouton, 1968.
  • Glasse, Robert M. and Mervyn John Meggitt, ed. Pigs, Pearlshells and Women; Marriage in the New Guinea Highlands. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  • Godelier, Maurice, trans. Rupert Swyer. The Making of Great Men: Male Domination and Power among the New Guinea Baruya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Godelier, Maurice and Marilyn Strathern. Big Men and Great Men: Personifications of Power in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown. London: Methuen, 1901.
  • Hallpike, Christopher Robert. Bloodshed and Vengeance in the Papuan Mountains: the Generation of Conflict in Tauade Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Harrison, Simon. Stealing People’s Names: History and Politics in a Sepik River Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Hau’ofa, Epeli. Mekeo: Inequality and Ambivalence in a Village Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1981.
  • Healey, Christopher James. Maring Hunters and Traders: Production and Exchange in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Pioneers of the Mountain Forest: Settlement and Land Redistribution among the Kundagai Maring of the Papua New Guinea Highlands. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1985.
  • Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
  • Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
  • The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987.
  • Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Hiatt, Lester Richard and Chandra Jayawardena, eds. Anthropology in Oceania: Essays Presented to lan Hogbin. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian. Kinship and Marriage in a New Guinea Village. London: Athlone Press, 1963.
  • The Leaders and the Led: Social Control in Wogeo, New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1978.
  • Social Change: Josiah Mason Lectures Delivered at the University of Birmingham. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1958, reprinted 1970.
  • Transformation Scene: the Changing Culture of a New Guinea Village. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951.
  • Hogbin, H. Ian and Peter Lawrence. Studies in New Guinea Land Tenure. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1967.
  • Hutchins, Edwin Lee. Culture and Interference: a Trobriand Case Study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • Jarvie, Ian C. The Revolution in Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964; corrected reprint 1967.
  • Jenness, Diamond and A. Ballantyne. The Northern D’Entrecasteux. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1920.
  • Jolly, Margaret and Martha Mcintyre, ed. Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Josephides, Lisette. The Production of Inequality: Gender and Exchange among the Kewa. London: Tavistock, 1985.
  • Kahn, Miriam. Always Hungry, Never Greedy: Food and the Expression of Gender in a Melanesian Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Kasprus, Aloys. The Tribes of the Middle Ramu and the Upper Keram Rivers (North-east New Guinea) St Augustin: Anthropos-Institut, 1973.
  • Kelly, Raymond Case. Etoro Social Structure: a Study in Structural Contradiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.
  • Knauft, Bruce M. Good Company and Violence: Sorcery and Social Action in a Lowland New Guinea Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • South Coast New Guinea Cultures: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Koch, Klaus Friedrich. War and Peace in Jalémó: the Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea: a Nature-born Instance of Rousseau’s Ideal Community. London: Macmillan, 1927; New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.
  • Langness, Lewis L. and Weschler, John C., ed. Melanesia; Readings on a Culture Area. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler, 1971.
  • Lawrence, Peter. The Garia: an Ethnography of a Traditional Cosmic System in Papua New Guinea. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983; Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
  • Land Tenure among the Garia: the Traditional System of a New Guinea People. Canberra: Australian National University, 1955.
  • Leach, Jerry W. and Edmund Leach, ed. The Kula: New Perspectives on Massim Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • Lederman, Rena. What Gifts Engender: Social Relations and Politics in Mendi, Highland Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: an Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • Knowledge of Illness in a Sepik Society: a Study of the Gnau, New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1975.
  • Lidz, Theodore et al. Oedipus in the Stone Age: a Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press, 1989.
  • Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1979.
  • McDowell, Nancy. The Mundugumor: from the Field Notes of Margaret Mead and Reo Fortune. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
  • MacKenzie, Maureen Anne. Androgynous Objects: String Bags and Gender in Central New Guinea. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991.
  • McSwain, Romola. The Past and Future People: Tradition and Change on a New Guinea Island. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Maher, Robert F. New Men for Old: a Study of Cultural Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1961.
  • Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922.
  • Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1926.
  • Norbert Guterman. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967.
  • ed. by Michael W. Young. The Ethnography of Malinowski: the Trobriand Islands 1915-18. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
  • Magic, Science and Religion, and Other Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • Sex and Repression in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927; New York: Humanities Press, 1951.
  • Sex, Culture and Myth. London: Hart-Davis, 1963.
  • The Sexual Life of Savages in North-western Melanesia: an Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London: Routledge, 1929; 3rd ed., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1932.
  • Mawe, Theodore. Mendi Culture and Tradition: a Recent Survey. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1985.
  • Mead, Margaret. Growing up in New Guinea: a Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow, 1930; London: Routledge, 1931; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1942, 1965, 1981.
  • The Mountain Arapesh. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1938-45; reprinted Garden City, New York: Natural History Press, 1968-71.
  • New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation, Manus, 1928-53. New York: William Morrow,; London, Gollancz: 1956; 2nd ed., New York: William Morrow, 1966.
  • Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1935.
  • Meggitt, Mervyn John. Blood is their Argument: Warfare among the Mae Enga Tribesmen of the New Guinea Highlands. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield, 1977.
  • The Lineage System of the Mae-Enga of New Guinea. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.
  • Studies in Enga History. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1974.
  • Mimica, Jadran. “The Incest Passions: an Outline of the Logic of Iqwaye Social Organization.” Part 1: Oceania, v.62, no. 1, Sept 1991, pp. 34-58; Part 2: Oceania, v.62, no. 2, Dec 1991, pp. 81-113.
  • Mitchell, William E., ed. Clowning as Critical Practice: Performance Humor in the South Pacific. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
  • Morren, George E. B. The Miyanmin: Human Ecology of a Papua New Guinea Society. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986.
  • Mosko, Mark S. Quadripartite Structures: Categories, Relations and Homologies in Bush Mekeo Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Munn, Nancy D. The Fame of Gawa: a Symbolic Study of Value Transformation in a Massim (Papua New Guinea) Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976; Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1992.
  • Neumann, Klaus. “Tradition and Identity in Papua New Guinea: Some Observations regarding Tami and Tolai.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 295-316.
  • Newman, Philip Lee. Knowing the Gururumba. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.
  • Oliver, Douglas. A Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1955.
  • Studies in the Anthropology of Bougainville, Solomon Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 1949.
  • Otto, Tom. “The Ways of ‘Kastam’: Tradition as Category and Practice in a Manus Village.” Oceania, v.62, no.4, June 1992, pp. 264-283.
  • Pataki-Schweizer, K. J. A New Guinea Landscape: Community, Space and Time in the Eastern Highlands. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.
  • Powdermaker, Louise [Hortense]. Life in Lesu: the Study of a Melanesian Society in New Ireland. London: Williams and Norgate, 1933; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1979.
  • Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968; new ed. 1984.
  • Read, Kenneth E. The High Valley. New York: Scribner, 1965; London: Allen and Unwin, 1966.
  • Return to the High Valley: Coming Full Circle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Reay, Marie. The Kuma: Freedom and Conformity in the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1959.
  • Robbins, Sterling. Auyuna: Those Who Held onto Home. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Warfare, Marriage and the Distribution of Goods in Auyana. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
  • Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Mead’s Other Manus: Phenomenology of the Encounter. South Hadley, Massachusetts: Bergin and Garvey, 1985.
  • Rubel, Paula G. and Abraham Rosman. Your Own Pigs You May Not Eat: a Comparative Study of New Guinea Societies. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1977.
  • Schieffelin, Edward L. and Robert Crittenden, ed. Like People You See in a Dream: First Contact in Six Papuan Societies. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1991.
  • Schwartz, Theodore. “Kastom, ‘custom’, and culture: conspicuous culture and culture constructs.” Anthropological Forum, v.6, no.4, 1993, pp. 515-540.
  • Schwimmer, Erik. Exchange in the Social Structure of the Orokaiva: Traditional and Emergent Ideologies in the Northern District of Papua. London: Hurst; Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Seligman, Charles Gabriel. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910.
  • Shaw, R. Daniel. Kinship Studies in Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Sillitoe, Paul. Give and Take: Exchange in Wola Society. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979.
  • Sorenson, E. Richard. The Edge of the Forest: Childhood and Change in a New Guinea Protoagricultural Society. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.
  • Spiro, Melford E. Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Stephen, Michele, ed. Sorcerer and Witch in Melanesia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press with Research Centre for South-west Pacific Studies, Latrobe University, 1987.
  • Strathern, Andrew A. Landmarks: Reflections on Anthropology. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1993.
  • A Line of Power. London: Tavistock, 1984.
  • One Father, One Blood: Descent and Group Structure among the Melpa People. Canberra: Australian National University Press; London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.
  • The Rope of Moka: Big-men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • Inequality in New Guinea Highlands Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Strathern, Marilyn. The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
  • . Partial Connections. Savage, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.
  • Women in Between: Female Roles in a Male World: Mount Hagen, New Guinea. London: Seminar Press, 1972.
  • , ed. Dealing with Inequality: Analysing Gender Relations in Melanesia and Beyond; Essays by Members of the 1983/ 1984 Anthropological Research Group at the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Swadling, Pamela, ed. People of the West Sepik Coast. Port Moresby: National Museum and Art Gallery, 1979.
  • Tuzin, Donald F. The llahita Arapesh: Dimensions of Unity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • Uberoi, J. P. Singh. Politics of the Kula-ring: an Analysis of the Findings of Bronislaw Malinowski. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1962.
  • Valentine, Charles A. Masks and Men in a Melanesian Society: the Valuku or Tubuan of the Lakalai of New Britain. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1961.
  • Vicedom, Georg F. and Herbert Tischner, trans. by Helen M. Groger-Wurm. The Mbowamb: the Culture of the Mount Hagen Tribes in East Central New Guinea. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1983.
  • Waddell, E. The Mound Builders: Agricultural Practices, Environment, and Society in the Central Highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
  • Wagner, Roy. Asiwinarong: Ethos, Image, and Social Power among the Usen Barok of New Ireland. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • . The Curse of Souw: Principles of Daribi Clan Definition and Alliance in New Guinea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
  • Watson, James B. Tairora Culture: Contingency and Pragmatism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983.
  • , ed. New Guinea: the Central Highlands. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association, 1964.
  • Weiner, Annette. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976; St Lucia, Queensland: University of Quensland Press, 1977.
  • Weiner, James F. The Empty Place; Poetry, Space, and Being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  • , ed. Mountain Papuans. Historical and Comparative Perspectives from New Guinea Fringe Highlands Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.
  • Westerman, Ted. The Mountain People: Social Institutions of the Laiapu Enga. Wapenamanda: New Guinea Lutheran Mission, 1968.
  • Whiteman, Darrell L. An Introduction to Melanesian Cultures: a Handbook for Church Workers. Goroka: Melanesian Institute, 1984.
  • Whiting, John Wesley Mayhew. Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and Learning in a New Guinea Tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press for Institute of Human Relations, 1941; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1978.
  • Williams, Francis Edgar. Drama of Orokolo: Social and Ceremonial Life of the Elema. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
  • . Orokaiva Magic. London: Oxford University Press, 1928; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1969.
  • . Orokaiva Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930; reprinted Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1982.
  • . Papuans of the Trans-Fly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936; reprinted by arrangement with the Administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, 1969.
  • , ed. Erik Schwimmer. ”The Vailala Madness” and Other Essays. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.
  • Williamson, Robert Wood. The Mafulu: Mountain People of British New Guinea. London: Macmillan, 1912.
  • Young, Michael. Fighting with Food: Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • . Magicians of Manumanu: Living Myth in Kalauna. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Society (VII)”

Cardinal Numbers in Tok Pisin

Numbers in Tok Pisin occur with and without –pela suffixed to them:

    1                       wan                                  wanpela
    2                      tu                                       tupela
    3                      tri                                      tripela
    4                      foa                                    fopela
    5                      faiv                                   faipela
    6                      sikis                                 sikispela
    7                      seven                               sevenpela
    8                      et                                       etpela
    9                      nain                                 nainpela
    10                    ten                                    tenpela

Those without –pela attached correspond to the names of the numbers in English and are used for mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and for counting money and telling the time, some of which will be presented in more detail later. Numbers beyond ten are not constructed as in English although one may occasionally hear the shorter ones with –pela attached to them, e.g.

    elevenpela                 eleven
    eitinpela                     eighteen
    twentipela                 twenty

Sometimes an older method of counting beyond ten is resorted to in modern contexts to make sure that there is no ambiguity or doubt about what is said. For example, on aircraft where the noise level is high the hostess might say The journey will take thirty-five minutes and will use tripela ten faiv minit for thirty-five . The numbers in this older method of counting are based on ten (except for the hundreds) and are regularly derived. Consider, for example:

    11                    wanpela ten wan
    12                   wanpela ten tu
    18                   wanpela ten et
    26                  tupela ten sikis
    54                  faipela ten foa
    80                  etpela ten
    100                wan handet

In the classroom nating, not or siro is used for nought or zero but outside it in everyday life the idea of nothing is expressed by i no gat wanpela (lit. there is not one). Approximations are given by samting olsem, e.g. Em i gat samting olsem fotisikis kina He’s got about K46 (lit. something like K46).