Social protection and social safety nets in urban Papua New Guinea

by Michelle N Rooney, Australian National University

With an emphasis on the poorest and most vulnerable members of society, development agencies conceptualise social protection as interventions that support social security through enabling access to sustainable and resilient livelihoods and, providing coping measures to deal with hardship. This includes identifying and mitigating the risks people face in their livelihoods individually and collectively. Globally,the applicability of formal social protection mechanisms driven by development actors has drawn debate as to the fiscal viability and applicability within the political economy of developing countries. Continue reading “Social protection and social safety nets in urban Papua New Guinea”

The inexorable rise of private security in Papua New Guinea

by Sinclair Dinnen, Australian National University

The growth of private security is a global phenomenon, with the fastest expansion in recent years taking place in the developing world. Worth around US$165 billion worldwide in 2009, the industry is set to reach an estimated US$267 billion in 2018 (WSS 2016). While there is limited data available, Pacific Island countries appear to be conforming to the larger international pattern of private security vehicles, uniformed personnel, guard dogs and company logos. The industry has become a significant source of employment and favoured form of investment in many countries. As elsewhere, this reflects both an increase in demand for private security and a growth in the supply of such services. Continue reading “The inexorable rise of private security in Papua New Guinea”

Employment and work in the settlements

by Fiona Hukula, Papua New Guinea National Research Institute

Settlements in Papua New Guinea have always been associated with low income earners and unemployment. This categorisation leads to assumptions about criminality, urban safety and vagrancy. A settlement, though physically part of Port Moresby, epitomises the contradictions of an ideal urban social life, the world of the city where you can thrive to make a living through paid employment or street selling in the informal economy. The growing middle class including business people and white collar workers and the educated elite of Port Moresby continually condemn settlements as crime infested locales, connected to the city through potholed roads and illegal utility connections, where unemployed people spend their days sitting around gambling, planning criminal activities and engaging in other behaviour considered socially unacceptable. These assumptions are largely based on negative media coverage, a western informed idea about what a modern Port Moresby should look like, coupled with a lack of knowledge of the lives of settlement residents. The ongoing debate about settlements and urbanisation has been prevalent in Papua New Guinea (PNG) since the 1970s. The daily newspapers regularly publish letters from Port Moresby residents condemning settlers and urging the government to take a tougher stance by repatriating them to their home provinces. In addition to the more traditional forms of media, the internet has given Papua New Guineans the opportunity to debate such issues on online forums, facebook, blogs and on websites concerning PNG. Continue reading “Employment and work in the settlements”

Transition to modernity: Migrant settlements and customary land issues in Port Moresby

by Mary Walta, Australian National University

For Papua New Guineans, the transition from traditional lifestyles in rural villages to modernity in urban settlements started around 60 years ago. Those most affected by this change are the 13 per cent of the rural population who now make up the rapidly growing urban centres. In this short time, they have relinquished their traditional subsistence lifestyles in isolated settlements to live among fellow countrymen in some of the most socioculturally diverse settlements on the planet. Although lifestyles have changed in the urban setting, traditional norms and values still inform the adjustment to urban settlement and livelihoods.

This article highlights some key issues involved in this rapid transition including: the features of traditional social organisation and its ability to integrate non-kin; the key challenges of urban settlement; and recent urbanisation policy.

Continue reading “Transition to modernity: Migrant settlements and customary land issues in Port Moresby”

Books about Papua New Guinea – General (I)

1. General Introductory Works

  • Dorney, Sean. Papua New Guinea: People, Politics and History since 1975. Milson’s Point, New South Wales: Random House, 1990.
  • Ford, Edgar. Papua New Guinea: the Land and the People. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda, 1973.
  • King, David and S. Ranck, ed. Papua New Guinea Atlas: a Nation in Transition. Bathurst, New South Wales, and Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates and the University of Papua New Guinea, 1982.
  • Löffler, Ernst. Papua New Guinea. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson of Australia, 1979.
  • McKay, Roy D. New Guinea. Amsterdam: Time-Life, 1976.
  • May, Ronald J. and Hank Nelson, ed. Melanesia, Beyond Diversity. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1980.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. The Melanesian Way. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. Papua New Guinea: the Challenge of Independence. Melbourne: Penguin, 1990.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – General (I)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Culture (II)

1. Folklore and Mythology

 

  • Abel, Russell William. Tales told in Papua: Four Original Papuan Stories retold in English. London: Livingstone Press, 1943.
  • Beier, Ulli, comp. When the Moon Was Big, and Other Legends from New Guinea. Sydney: Collins, 1972.
  • Beier, Ulli and Prithvindra Chakravarti, comp. and ed. Sun and Moon in New Guinea Folklore. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Brash, Elton and Nigel Krauth, ed. Traditional Poems, Chants and Songs of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Papua Pocket Poets, 1973.
  • Brown, Herbert A. Three Elema Myths. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1988.
  • Gehberger, Johann, trans. John J. Tschauder and Pamela Swadling. The Myths of Samap: East Sepik Myths from Samap, Mandi and Senampeli Recorded between 1938 and 1940. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Gillison, Gillian. Between Culture and Fantasy: a New Guinea Highlands Mythology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Hesse, Karl, trans. Ulli Beier. Baining Legends. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Hesse, Karl and Theo Aerts, trans. and ed. Theo Aerts. Baining Dances. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • . Baining Life and Lore. Port Moresby, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • Höltker, Georg, trans. Ulli Beier. Myths and Legends from Murik Lakes, Part 1. Port Moresby:Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1975.
  • , trans. Gabrielle Duigu. Myths and Legends of the Monumbo and Ngaimbom Papuans of Northeast New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • Janssen, Hermann et al. Tolai Myths of Origin. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Jenness, D. and A. Ballantyne. Language, Mythology and Songs of Bwaidoga: Goodenough Island, S. E. Papua. New Plymouth, New Zealand: T. Avery, 1928.
  • Köhnke, Glenys. The Shark Callers: an Ancient Fishing Tradition of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Yumi Press, 1974.
  • . Taim belong Tumbuna: Legends and Traditions of Papua New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1973.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. The Folk Tales of the Kiwai Papuans. Helsinki: Societas Scientarum Fennica, 1917.
  • Laupu, Jakob Mus, transcribed and trans. C. Dorothy A. Counts. Ol Stori bilong Laupu [The Stories of Laupu]. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1982.
  • LeRoy, John. Fabricated World: an Interpretation of Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • , trans. and ed. Kewa Tales. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.
  • Lett, Lewis. Savage Tales. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1946.
  • Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, trans. Brian Elliott. Primitive Mythology: the Mythic World of the Australian and Papuan Natives. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1983.
  • McElhanon, Kenneth A., ed. Legends from Papua New Guinea. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1974.
  • Noble, Philip. String Figures of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1979.
  • Pekoro, Morea. Orokolo Genesis: an Account of the Origin of the World and the People of Niugini as told in Hiri Motu. Port Moresby: Niugini Press, 1973.
  • Roleasmalik, Pensa M. Traditional Games of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Standards Division, Provincial Educational Services, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 1979.
  • Stokes, Donald S., comp. The Turtle and the Island: Folktales from Papua New Guinea, retold by Barbara Ker Wilson. Sydney: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978, 1980; Port Moresby: Web Books, 1985.
  • Strathern, Andrew, coll. and trans. Melpa Amb Kenan [Melpa Courting Songs]. Boroko: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1974.
  • . ed. Wiru Stories (Southern Highlands Province) Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1983.
  • Vicedom, Georg F., trans. Andrew Strathern. Myths and Legends from Mount Hagen. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Wagner, Roy. Lethal speech: Daribi Myth of Symbolic Obviation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.
  • Young, Maribelle, comp. and trans. Bwaidoka Tales. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1979.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Culture (II)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Economy (III)

1. General

  • Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook, May 1988. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • , The Papua New Guinea Economy: Prospects for Sectoral Development & Broad Based Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993.
  • Baldwin, George B. et al. Papua New Guinea, its Economic Situation and Prospects for Development: Report of a Mission Sent to Papua New Guinea by the World Bank . . . Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 1978.
  • Callick, Rowan. “A World Bank Prescription for PNG”. Australian Society, v.10, no. 9, Oct 1991, pp. 17-18.
  • Country Profile: Papua New Guinea. London: Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), 1986- .
  • Dahanayake, P. A. S., ed. Policy Options for Papua New Guinea under Economic Conditions Resulting from the BCL Crisis; Papers Presented at the NRI Economic Policy Seminar held on 15 February 1990. Port Moresby: National Research Institute, 1990.
  • . Post-Independence Economic Development of Papua New Guinea; Proceedings of the IASER Conference. . . 198 . . . Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1982.
  • Daniel, Philip and Rod Sims. Foreign Investment in Papua New Guinea: Policies and Practices. Canberra: National Centre for Development Studies, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Elek, Andrew. “Papua New Guinea: Economic Recovery from the Bougainville Crisis and Prospects for the 1990s”. Economic Papers (Sydney) v. 11, no. 2, June 1992, pp. 13-31.
  • Fallon, John. The Papua New Guinean Economy: Prospects for Recovery, Reform and Sustained Growth. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1992.
  • Fleeton, M. and R. McGregor. Papua New Guinea. Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989.
  • Goodman, Raymond et al. The Economy of Papua New Guinea: an Independent Review: a report to the Government of Papua New Guinea and the Government of Australia. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1985.
  • Gupta, Desh and Samson Polume, ed. Economic Policy Issues and Options in Papua New Guinea: Papers from a Seminar . . . at the University of Papua New Guinea . . . 1983. Canberra: Development Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1984.
  • Jarrett, Frank G. et al. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1990.
  • Stein, Leslie. Papua New Guinea: Economic Situation and Outlook. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991.
  • Thompson, Herb. “Economic Theory and Economic Development in Papua New Guinea”. Journal of Contemporary Asia, v.21, no. 1, 1991, pp.54-67.
  • . The Political Economy of Papua New Guinea: Critical Essays. Manila: Journal of Contemporary Asia Publishers, 1992.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Economy (III)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – History (IV)

1. General

  • Biskup, Peter et al. A Short History of New Guinea. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968; rev. ed. 1970.
  • Blong, Russell J. The Time of Darkness: Local Legends and Volcanic Reality in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.
  • Denoon, Donald and Roderic Lacey. Oral Tradition in Melanesia. Port Moresby: The University of Papua New Guinea and The Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1981.
  • Gash, Noel and June Whittaker. A Pictorial History of New Guinea. Milton, Queensland: Jacaranda Press, 1975; Port Moresby: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Inglis, Kenneth Stanley, ed. The History of Melanesia: Second Waigani Seminar. Canberra: Australian National University Press; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1971.
  • Jinks, Brian et al. Readings in New Guinea History. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1973.
  • Kolia, John. The History of Balawaia. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, 1977.
  • Latukefu, Sione, ed. Papua New Guinea: a Century of Colonial Impact. Port Moresby: National Research Institute and University of Papua New Guinea, 1989.
  • Moore, Clive R. et al., comp. Colonial Intrusion: Papua New Guinea 1884. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1984.
  • Nelson, Hank. Black, White and Gold: Goldmining in Papua New Guinea 1878-1930. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1976.
  • Oliver, Douglas. Black Islanders: a Personal Perspective of Bougainville 1937-1991. South Yarra, Victoria: Hyland House, 1991.
  • . Bougainville, a Personal History. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1974.
  • . The Pacific Islands. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1951.
  • Price, A. Grenfell. The Challenge of New Guinea: Australian Aid to Papuan Progress. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1965.
  • Reed, Stephen Winsor. The Making of Modern New Guinea, with Special Reference to Culture Contact in the Mandated Territory. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society with the International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1943.
  • Rowley, Charles D. The New Guinea Villager: a Retrospect from 1964. Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1965.
  • Sack, Peter G. The Bloodthirsty Laewomba?: Myth and History in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1976.
  • . Land between Two Laws: Early European Land Acquisitions in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.
  • Sinclair, James. Papua New Guinea, the First 100 Years. Bathurst, New South Wales: Robert Brown & Associates, 1985.
  • Souter, Gavin. New Guinea: the Last Unknown. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1963.
  • Thompson, Roger C. Australian Imperialism in the Pacific: the Expansionist Era 1820-1920. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1980.
  • Todd, Ian. Papua New Guinea: Moment of Truth. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1974.
  • Waiko, John Dademo. A Short History of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Whittaker, June L. et al. Documents and Readings in New Guinea History: Prehistory to 1889. Brisbane: Jacaranda Press, 1975.
  • Wu, David Yen-Ho. The Chinese in Papua New Guinea, 18801980. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1982.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – History (IV)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Politics and Government (V)

1. General

  • Australian Institute of Political Science, ed. John Wilkes. New Guinea . . . Future Indefinite?: Papers Read at the 34th Summer School of the Institute. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968.
  • Ballard, John Addison, ed. Policy Making in a New State: Papua New Guinea, 1972-77. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1981.
  • The Barnett Report: a Summary of the Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Aspects of the Timber Industry in Papua New Guinea. Hobart: Asia-Pacific Action Group, 1990.
  • Berndt, Ronald Murray and Peter Lawrence, ed. Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change; Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1971.
  • Bettison, David George et al., ed. The Papua New Guinea Elections, 1964. Canberra: Australian National University, 1965.
  • Bonney, Norman. The Politics and Finance of Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Centre for Research on Federal Financial Relations, Australian National University, 1986.
  • Conyers, Diana. The Provincial Government Debate: Central Control Versus Local Participation in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1976.
  • Dwivedi, O. P. in collaboration with Nelson E. Paulias, ed. Ethics in Government: the Public Service of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby: Administrative College of Papua New Guinea, 1984.
  • Epstein, Arnold Leonard et al., ed. The Politics of Dependence: Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1971.
  • Grosart, Ian, ed. A New Guinea Brief: Select Documents on Political Development of Papua and New Guinea. Sydney: Australian Institute of Political Science, 1967.
  • Hasluck, Paul Meernaa Caedwalla [Sir Paul]. Australia’s Task in Papua and New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1956.
  • . A Time for Building: Australian Administration in Papua and New Guinea 1951-1963. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Hegarty, David, ed. Electoral Politics in Papua New Guinea: Studies on the 1977 National Elections. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press, 1983.
  • Jinks, Brian. New Guinea Government: an Introduction. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1971.
  • May, Ronald J., ed. Micronationalist Movements in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Department of Political and Social Change, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1982.
  • Morauta, Louise. Beyond the Village: Local Politics in Madang, Papua New Guinea. London: Athlone Press; New York: Humanities Press, 1974.
  • Narakobi, Bernard. Life and Leadership in Melanesia. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea; Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.
  • Nelson, Hank. Papua New Guinea: Black Chaos or Black Unity? Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1972.
  • Pokawin, Stephen. “Papua New Guinea; Post Colonial Experiences of Australian Public Administration”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.51., no.2, June 1992, pp. 169-175.
  • Premdas, Ralph and Stephen Pokawin, ed. Decentralization: the Papua New Guinean Experiment; Waigani Seminar Papers 1978. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1979.
  • Standish, Bill. Provincial Government in Papua New Guinea: Early lessons from Chimbu. Port Moresby: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, 1979.
  • Stephen, David. A History of Political Parties in Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: Lansdown Press, 1972.
  • Stone, David, ed. Prelude to Self-government. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University and University of Papua New Guinea, 1976.
  • Tanham, George K. and Eleanor S. Wainstein. ”Prepared for the Under Secretary for Defense Policy”. Papua New Guinea Today. Santa Monica, California: RAND, 1990.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald. “The Long and Winding Road: Administrative Training in Post Colonial Papua New Guinea”. Australian Journal of Public Administration, v.52, no. 2, June 1992.
  • Turner, Mark Macdonald and David W. Hegarty. The 1987 Election in Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1987.
  • Ward, Marion W., ed. The Politics of Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Fourth Waigani Seminar . . . 1970. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University; Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1970.
  • White, Osmar. Parliament of a Thousand Tribes: Papua New Guinea, the Story of an Emerging Nation. London: Heinemann, 1965; rev. ed., Melbourne, Wren, 1972.
  • Woolford, Don. Papua New GuineaInitiation and Independence. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1976.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Politics and Government (V)”

Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)

1. General

  • Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. Science in Emergent Countries. Sydney: ANZAAS, 1970; Search vol. 1 no. 5; special issue on 42nd Congress of ANZAAS, Port Moresby, 1970.
  • Morton, J. R., ed. The Role of Science and Technology in the Development of Papua New Guinea: the Policy Dimensions. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea, 1984.

Continue reading “Books about Papua New Guinea – Science (VI)”