noun jem o binatang bilong kamapim sik AIDS.
Over 95% of HIV cases reported in the Pacific between 1987 and 2015 have been from Papua New Guinea. United Nations (UN) agencies estimate that approximately 46 000 people were living with HIV in Papua New Guinea in 2016, of whom 23 875 (52%) had received antiretroviral therapy (ART) (UNAIDS, 2017). However, the inconsistent availability of antiretroviral drugs and supplies throughout the country remains a major constraint. The HIV prevalence is estimated at 0.79% of the total population in 2015, up from 0.7% in 2014. In 2015, Enga, Jiwaka, Western Highlands, Eastern Highlands and the National Capital District all reported more than 1% HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic (PEPFAR, 2016).
The HIV epidemic in the country is predominantly driven by heterosexual transmission with a background of a high rate of untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The modes of HIV transmission consist of
heterosexual intercourse (93%), mother-to-child transmission (4%), body piercing and homosexual contact (<2%) (UNAIDS, 2012).
The Integrated Behavioural Surveillance Survey (2011) (USAID/FHI, 2011) identified rates as high as 17% among surveyed female sex workers and 24% among surveyed transgender sex workers in Port Moresby. Additionally, a high prevalence was found among surveyed men (302) who identified as male sex workers in Port Moresby, with a 9% rate among men who sell sex and 24% among transgendered males who sell sex. Injection drug use is very rare in Papua New Guinea. However, criminalization, stigma and discrimination related to homosexuality contribute to men who have sex with men (MSM) remaining hidden, making data on this population underreported. Other HIV surveillance sites and positivity rates include: STI clinics (4%), TB clinics (5%), health facilities (6%), blood banks (0.3%) and HIV counselling and treatment clinics (4%) (USAID/FHI, 2011).